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The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

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The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

The United Kingdom is situated on the British Isles. The British Isles consist of two large islands, Great Britain and Ireland, with Northern Ireland and the Irish Republic, and a great number of small islands. Their total area is over 244,000 square kilometres.

The British Isles are separated from the European continent by the North Sea and the English Channel. The western coast of Great Britain is washed by the Atlantic Ocean and the Irish Sea.

Northern Ireland occupies one third of the island of Ireland. It borders on the Irish Republic in the south.

The island of Great Britain consists of three main parts: England, Wales and Scotland.

There are no high mountains in Great Britain. Scotland is a mountainous country, especially in the north. There the main chain of mountains is called the Grampians. Its highest peak is Ben Nevis, which is 1,343 metres high. It is the highest peak in Britain.

The northern part of Scotland is often called the Highlands, and the southern part is called the Lowlands. In England, the Pennine Chain runs down from the north through the centre. In Wales there are the Cambrian Mountains, the highest peak of which is Snowdon.

The Cheviots (the Cheviot Hills) separate England from Scotland.

There is very little flat country except in the region known as East Anglia.

The British Isles have many rivers, but they are not very long. The longest of the English rivers is the Severn, which flows into the Irish Sea. The Thames flows through rich agricultural and industrial districts. The capital of Great Britain London stands on it. Scotland’s most important river is the Clyde, on which Glasgow stands. Many of the English and Scottish rivers are joined by canals, so that it is possible to travel by water from one end of Great Britain to the other.

England, Ireland and Scotland have many beautiful lakes. The most famous of them are in the Lake District in north-west England.

The climate of the British Isles is generally mild, not very cold in winter and never very hot in summer. All parts of the British Isles have a lot of rain in all seasons. In winter, thick fogs cover many parts of Britain. The British Isles are warmed by the Gulf Stream, the warm currents in the Atlantic Ocean.

The mild and damp climate is very good for agriculture, especially for vegetable-farming, sheep - and cattle-farming.

Great Britain is not very rich in mineral resources: it has some deposits of coal, and iron ore and vast deposits of oil and gas that were discovered in the North Sea.

Great Britain is a highly industrialized country. The main industrial centres are London, Birmingham, Manchester, Leeds, Liverpool, Glasgow and Bristol.

There are so-called ‘old’ branches of industry, textile industry with the centres in Yorkshire and Lancashire and coal-mining, which appeared in the period of industrial revolution. Coal-mining industry is found in Wales, in the south of Scotland, and in the northern part of England. The district around Birmingham is known as the Black Country. It is a land of factories and mines.

Today in a new age of modern technology Britain has made important advances in such new industries as electronic and telecommunication equipment, in aircraft and aircraft engines, in plastics and synthetic materials, radio-isotopes and new drugs.

The population of the United Kingdom is over 55 mln people. The main nationalities are: the English, the Scottish, the Welsh and the Irish. In Great Britain there are a lot of immigrants from former British Asian and African colonies.

  1. Names/Географические названия

the United Kingdom [ju:,naɪtɪd'kɪŋdəm] of Great Britain and Northern Ireland [,nɔ:ðən'aɪələnd] – Соединенное Королевство Великобритании и Северной Ирландии

the British Isles [aɪlz]– Британские острова

the Irish Republic ['aɪ(ə)rɪʃ rɪ'pʌblɪk] – Ирландская республика

Europe ['juərəp] – Европа

the European continent [juərə'pi:ən 'kɔntɪnənt]– европейский континент

Asia ['eɪʃə] – Азия

the Asian colony ['eɪʃ(ə)n 'kɔlənɪ] – азиатская колония

Africa ['æfrɪkə] – Африка

the African colony ['æfrɪkən 'kɔlənɪ] – африканская колония

the North Sea [nɔ:θ'si:] – Северное море

the Atlantic Ocean [ət'læntɪk 'əuʃn] – Атлантический океан

the English Channel [ɪŋglɪʃ'ʧænl] – Ла-Манш

the Irish Sea ['aɪ(ə)rɪʃ si] – Ирландское море

Wales [weɪlz] – Уэльс

Scotland ['skɔtlənd] – Шотландия

the Grampians ['græmpɪənz] – Грампианские горы

the Highlands ['haɪləndz] – Высокогорье (северная часть Шотландии)

the Lowlands ['ləuləndz] – Низменность (южная часть Шотландии)

the Pennine Chain ['penaɪn ʧeɪn] – Пенинские горы

the Cambrian Mountains ['kæmbrɪən 'mauntɪnz] – Кембрийские горы

the Cheviots (the Cheviot Hills) ['ʧi:vɪəts] – Чевиот-Хиллс

Ben Nevis [ben'neɪvɪs] – Бен-Невис

Snowdon ['snəud(ə)n] - Сноудон

the Severn ['sev(ə)n] - Северн

the Clyde [klaɪd] - Клайд

the Thames [temz] - Темза

the Lake District [leɪk'dɪstrɪkt] – Озерный край

the Gulf Stream ['gʌlf stri:m] - Гольфстрим

East Anglia [,i:st'æŋglɪə] – Восточная Англия

Birmingham ['bɜ:mɪŋəm] – г. Бирмингем

Manchester – г. Манчестер

Liverpool ['lɪvəpu:l] - г. Глазго

Yorkshire ['jɔ:kʃə] – Йоркшир

Lancashire ['læŋkəʃɪə] - Ланкашир

the Black Country – «Черная страна» (каменноугольный и железообрабатывающий район)

the English - англичане

the Scottish, - шотландцы

the Welsh - валлийцы

the Irish - ирландцы

  1. Words and word combinations to be remembered/Слова и словосочетания для заучивания:

  1. an island

  2. total area

  3. population

  4. nationality

  5. a mountainous country

  6. a mountain chain

  7. a peak

  8. the warm currents

  9. mineral resources

  10. a branch of industry

  11. coal-mining industry

  12. textile industry

остров

общая площадь

население

национальность

горная страна

горная цепь

вершина

теплое течение

полезные ископаемые

отрасль промышленности

угледобывающая промышленность

текстильная промышленность

  1. to be situated

  2. to be washed by

располагаться

омываться

  1. to separate … from …

  2. to be separated from

отделять … от…

отделяться от

  1. to border on

  2. to occupy

граничить с

занимать (территорию)

  1. to consist of

  2. to be washed by

состоять из

омываться

  1. to flow into

  2. to be called

впадать в

называться

  1. to be rich in

быть богатым ч-л

  1. to divide

  2. north – northern

  3. south – southern

  4. west – western

  5. east - eastern

разделять (на части)

север – северный

юг – южный

запад – западный

восток - восточный

  1. Match the parts of the sentences using the following verbs/Соотнесите части предложений, используя данные глаголы.

  1. is / are

    1. The official name of the country

    2. The total area of the islands

    3. The population of the UK

    4. The capital of Great Britain

    5. England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland

    6. The main nationalities

    7. The climate

    1. over 60 million people.

    2. the English, the Welsh, the Scottish, the Irish.

    3. 244,000 square kilometers.

    4. London.

    5. the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

    6. mild and damp.

    7. the four main parts of the UK.

  2. is / are situated

  1. The United Kingdom

  2. The British Isles

  3. Northern Ireland

  4. The English Channel

  5. England, Wales and Scotland

  1. on the island of Great Britain.

  2. on the island of Ireland.

  3. between the British Isles and the Continent.

  4. on the British Isles.

  5. to the north-west of the European Continent.

  1. consist(s) of

  1. The British Isles

  2. The UK

  3. Scotland

  1. four parts: England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland.

  2. the Highlands and the Lowlands.

  3. two large islands and a great number of small islands.

  1. is / are washed by

  1. The western coast of Great Britain

  2. In the east the country

  3. In the south Great Britain

  1. the English Channel.

  2. the North Sea.

  3. the Atlantic Ocean and the Irish Sea.

  1. border (s) on

  1. The UK

  2. England

  3. Wales

  1. the Irish Republic in the south.

  2. Wales in the west and Scotland in the north.

  3. England in the east.

  1. is / are called

  1. The northern part of Scotland

  2. Its southern part

  3. In Scotland the main chain of mountains

  4. In England the mountain chain

  5. In Wales the mountain chain

  6. The highest peak in Great Britain

  7. The highest peak in Wales

  1. The Grampians.

  2. The Pennine Chain.

  3. Snowdon.

  4. The Highlands.

  5. The Cambrian Mountains.

  6. Ben Nevis.

  7. The Lowlands.

  1. separate (s) … from …

  1. The English Channel

  2. The Cheviot Hills

  1. the British Isles… the European Continent.

  2. England … Scotland.

  1. there is / are

  1. two large islands, Great Britain and Ireland.

  2. three parts on the island of Great Britain.

  3. no high mountains in Great Britain.

  4. very little flat country.

  5. a lot of rivers but they are not very long.

  6. a net of canals connecting many of the English and Scottish rivers.

  7. a lot of immigrants from former British Asian and African colonies.

  1. Make up minidialogues according to the following patterns/Составьте минидиалоги по данным образцам .

  1. Patterns:

  • Is Great Britain called the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland?

  • I am sure / I think it is.

  • Is the UK situated on the continent?

  • Im not sure. / I dont think it is. The UK is situated on the British Isles.

Prompts:

  1. The area of Great Britain is 350,000 square kilometers.

  2. The British Isles are separated from the Continent by the North Sea and the English Channel.

  3. Great Britain is washed by the Atlantic Ocean and the Irish Sea in the east.

  4. The population of the UK is over 60 mln people.

  5. The main nationalities are the English, the Welsh, the Scottish and the Irish.

  6. There are a lot of high mountains in the country.

  7. The southern part of Scotland is called the Highlands.

  8. The highest peak in the UK is Snowdon.

  9. There is very little flat country.

  10. The British rivers are not very long.

  11. The climate is very cold in winter and very hot in summer.

  12. There are a lot of immigrants from former British Asian and African colonies.

  1. Patterns:

  • Do the British Isles consist of two large islands, Great Britain and Ireland?

  • Yes, they do. I fully agree with you. / You are quite (absolutely) right.

  • Does Northern Ireland occupy a half of the island of Ireland?

  • No, it doesn’t. I cant agree with you. / I disagree with you. / I think youre wrong about that.

Prompts:

  1. The UK borders on the Irish Republic in the south.

  2. The country consists of four parts: England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland.

  3. The Cheviot Hills separate England from Wales.

  4. The Irish Sea separates the British Isles from the Continent.

  5. The river Severn flows into the Irish Sea.

  6. London stands on the river Clyde.

  7. A lot of immigrants live in Great Britain.

  1. Patterns:

  • What is the official name of the country?

  • It seems to me that it is the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

  • How many islands do the British Isles consist of?

  • In my opinion / to my mind they consist of two large islands and a great number of small islands.

Prompts:

  1. The UK is situated on the British Isles.

  2. Its total are is over 244,000 square kilometers.

  3. The British Isles are washed by the Atlantic Ocean and the Irish Sea in the west and the North Sea in the east.

  4. The British Isles are separated from the Continent by the English Channel.

  5. The capital of the UK is London.

  6. It stands on the river Thames.

  7. The UK consists of four main parts.

  8. Scotland is a mountainous country.

  9. The main mountain chains are the Grampians, the Pennines, and the Cambrians.

  10. The most famous British lakes are in the Lake District in north-west England.

  11. The climate of Great Britain is mild and damp.

  12. The British Isles are warmed by the warm currents in the Atlantic Ocean, the Gulf Stream.

  1. Pattern:

  • Is the UK situated on the continent or on the islands?

  • As for me, I think / If you ask me, I think the UK is situated on the islands.

Prompts:

  1. The Island of Great Britain consists of three / four main parts.

  2. The main chain of mountains in England is called the Grampians / the Pennines.

  3. The highest peak of the UK is Ben Nevis / Snowdon.

  4. Scotland’s most important river is the Severn / the Clyde.

  5. The Gulf Stream is the warm currents in the Pacific / Atlantic Ocean.

  6. The population of Great Britain is over 85 / 60 mln people.

5. Patterns:

  • The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the official name of Great Britain, isn’t it?

  • Yes, it is. / Sure. / Right. / Absolutely.

  • The UK borders on Russia, doesn’t it?

  • No, it doesn’t. I can’t agree with you. / I disagree with you. / I think you’re wrong about that.

Prompts:

  1. The British Isles consist of two large islands and a great number of small islands.

  2. The British Isles are separated from the Continent by the Irish Sea.

  3. Wales is a mountainous country.

  4. The Pennine Chain runs through the center of England.

  5. The British rivers are very long.

  6. The longest of the English rivers is the Severn.

  7. London stands on the river Clyde.

  8. The British Isles are warmed by the Gulf Stream.

6. Patterns:

  • The UK isn’t a large country, is it?

  • No, it isn’t. I quite / absolutely agree with you.

  • The English Channel doesn’t separate Great Britain from the European Continent, does it?

  • Yes, it does. I cant agree with you. / I disagree with you. / I think youre wrong about that.

Prompts:

  1. The British Isles aren’t washed by the Pacific Ocean.

  2. The UK doesn’t border on the Irish Republic.

  3. There are no high mountains in the country.

  4. The British rivers are not very long.

  5. The capital of the UK doesn’t stand on a river.

  6. English and Scottish rivers aren’t joined by canals.

  7. The population of the UK isn’t over 60 mln people.

  8. There are no immigrants in Great Britain.

7. Patterns:

  • Id like to know what the official name of Great Britain is.

  • If I am not mistaken, it is the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

  • Could you tell me how many islands the British Isles consist of?

  • If my memory serves me right, they consist of two large islands and a great number of small ones.

Prompts:

  1. Where is the UK situated?

  2. What is the capital of the country?

  3. What are the British Isles washed by?

  4. What parts does the island of Great Britain consist of?

  5. How is the northern part of Scotland called?

  6. Where are the Grampians situated?

  7. What mountain chain separates England from Scotland?

  8. Where does the Thames flow?

  9. What country does the UK border on?

  10. What is the climate of Great Britain like?

8. Patterns:

  • Id like to know if England is the same as Great Britain.

  • If I am not mistaken, it is not. England is one of the parts of Great Britain.

  • Could you tell me if the English Channel separates the British Isles from the European Continent?

  • If my memory serves me right, it does.

Prompts:

  1. Is the area of the UK over 400,000 square kilometers?

  2. Does the Northern Ireland occupy one third of the island of Ireland?

  3. Are there high mountains in Great Britain?

  4. Is Snowdon the highest peak in Great Britain?

  5. Does the Severn flow into the North Sea?

  6. Are the Cambrian Mountains situated in Wales?

  7. Does Glasgow stand on the Thames?

  8. Are the British Isles warmed by the Gulf Stream?

  9. Is it very hot in summer in Great Britain?

  10. Are there any immigrants in the UK?

  1. Complete the dialogue with the answers/Дополните диалог ответными репликами.

  • Good morning! I’m glad to see you! How are you?

  • … .

  • I’m fine too. What are you doing?

  • … .

  • A computer presentation? What is it about?

  • … .

  • Oh, I think I could help you. I’ve got quite a lot of material on the subject. When I was a first-year student I also made such a presentation.

  • … .

  • With pleasure. You can ask me any questions you like.

  • Let’s start with the name of the country. Some people call it England, some – Great Britain. Which one is right?

  • … .

  • Oh, I see. Is it situated on one island?

  • … .

  • Could you tell me what their total area is?

  • … .

  • Are they washed by the Atlantic or the Pacific Ocean?

  • …. .

  • And what sea separates the British Isles from the European Continent?

  • … .

  • It looks as if the UK doesn’t border on any country because it is surrounded by water.

  • … .

  • That’s clear now. Then I need some information about the relief. Are there high mountains in Great Britain?

  • … .

  • Could you name the main chains of mountains in all parts of the country?

  • … .

  • Is Snowdon the highest peak there?

  • … .

  • OK. And what about the British rivers? Are there many of them?

  • … .

  • I’m really ashamed but I know the Thames only. Will you name a couple of others, please?

  • … .

  • All right. As for the lakes, I’m certain that they are numerous.

  • … .

  • I’ve got that. And the last point I’d like to clear up is the climate. It’s a well-known fact that it rains there a lot. Am I right?

  • … .

  • Thank you very much. If I need some more information can I call you?

  • Sure. And I’ve got some wonderful pictures of Great Britain. They might be useful to you.

  • Oh, that would be great! Thanks a lot! Good-bye. See you.

  • Bye-bye.

  1. Complete the dialogue with the questions/Дополните диалог вопросами.

  • Good morning, everybody! Today we are going to speak on agriculture and industry of Great Britain. You are welcome to ask me questions.

  • … ?

  • No, it isn’t very rich in mineral resources: it has some deposits of coal and iron ore. In 1967 rich reserves of natural gas were discovered in the North Sea.

  • … ?

  • Other minerals are marble, granite, slate, lead, tin, and copper.

  • … ?

  • Yes, you are right. Great Britain is a highly developed industrial country. There are so-called “old” branches of industry and “modern” ones which appeared after the Second World War.

  • … ?

  • They are coal-mining and textile industries.

  • … ?

  • It is found in Wales, in the south of Scotland and in the northern part of England. The centres of metal industry are Liverpool, Manchester, Birmingham, and Sheffield.

  • … ?

  • Yorkshire and Lancashire are its centres. Light industry is developed in Leeds, Nottingham, London, Glasgow, and Belfast.

  • ... ?

  • Among the “modern” branches are electroengineering, electronic and telecommunication equipment, plastics and synthetic materials, radio-isotopes and new drugs.

  • … ?

  • You are quite right. This climate is very good for agriculture.

  • … ?

  • Well, they are vegetable-farming, sheep- and cattle-farming. OK. I think it’ll do for the time being. For more detailed information you can search some Internet sites and prepare a report or presentation on this subject.

  1. Fill in the chart and make up a dialogue to discuss British geography, climate and industries. Use functional phrases/Заполните схему и составьте диалог о географическом положении, климате и отраслях промышленности Великобритании. Используйте функциональные фразы:

  1. I am sure

  2. I think

Я уверен

Я думаю /полагаю

  1. I am not sure

  2. I don’t think

Я не уверен

Я не думаю / не считаю

  1. I fully / quite / absolutely agree with you

  2. You are quite / absolutely right

  1. Sure / Right / Absolutely

Я полностью / совершенно / абсолютно согласен с Вами / тобой

Вы / ты совершенно / абсолютно правы / прав

Конечно / Верно / Именно

  1. I can’t agree with you

  2. I disagree with you

  3. I think you are wrong about that

Я не могу согласиться с Вами / тобой

Я не согласен с Вами / тобой

Я думаю, Вы / ты не правы / не прав в этом вопросе

  1. It seems to me that

  2. In my opinion

  3. To my mind

Мне кажется, что

По моему мнению

  1. As for me, I think

  2. If you ask me, I think

Что касается меня, я думаю

Если спросить меня, я считаю

  1. I’d like to know

  2. Could you tell me

Я бы хотел знать

Не могли бы Вы / не мог бы ты сказать мне



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