Владимира Дмитриевича Аракина одного из замечательных лингвистов России предисловие настоящая книга
I like the way the doctor treats the child. Do you like the way she wears her hat? I don't like the way you speak to me. The teacher didn't like the way the children behaved in class.
It was difficult for the students to make notes of his lecture.
It will be convenient for you to live in our hostel.
It would be useful for him to give up smoking.
It would have been natural for the sick man to fall asleep after the injection.
I. Say whether you like or dislike the way:
1. the doctor treated the boy (in the story "A Day's Wait");
2. the boy behaved during his illness;
3. Hemingway described the boy's mood;
4. you spent your summer holidays;
5. the students of your group work at their English;
6. you were taught English at school;
7. women dress nowadays;
8. the girls in your group dress their hair.
II. Fill in missing adjectives + preposition:
1. Will it be......everybody to have our meeting after the lessons? I believe so, but I don't know if it will be......our teacher. 2. Would it be......the second-year students to read English newspapers? If you mean papers published in Britain I think it would be......them so far. 3. Which is more......a student: to read or to speak English well? If the student is going to become a teacher, it's equally ... ... him or her both to read and speak well. 4. Do you think it would be......students with bad spelling to copy English texts? It might be......them, of course, but to tell you the truth it's a very tiresome job. 5. Will it be.......students to take part in the phonetic contest at our department? Of course. It will be ......first-year students as it will give them a good chance to brush up their pronunciation.
III. Translate these sentences into English:
1. Ей будет легко подружиться с детьми — им нравится, как она с ними играет. 2, Мне было бы интересно принять участие в экскурсии, если бы я был помоложе. 3. Мне не нравится, как ты читаешь, тебе надо уделять больше внимания чтению вслух. 4. Я считаю, вам необходимо посоветоваться с врачом по поводу головной боли. 5. Мне не нравится, как эта медсестра делает уколы. 6. Первокурсникам будет интересно узнать об истории и традициях нашего института.
IV. Make up micro-dialogues using Speech Patterns 1—2:
Model: — Why didn't you come to N's recital yesterday? I liked the way he played.
— I'd have come if I were a musician as you are. But it's difficult for me to understand serious music, I prefer jazz.
TEXT. INTRODUCING LONDON
London is an ancient city. It grew up around the first point where the Roman invaders found the Thames narrow enough to build a bridge. They found a small Celtic settlement then known as Londinium and by A. D.21 300 they had turned it into a sizeable port and an important trading centre with a wall which enclosed the homes of about 50,000 people.
One in seven of the population of the United Kingdom is a Londoner. About 7 million people live in Greater London.22 London dominates British life. It is the home of the nation's commerce and finance, the main centre of its legal system and the press. It has the largest university and the greatest possibilities for entertainment and for sport in the country. London is one of the famous capital cities of the world, and every year attracts crowds of visitors from home and abroad. They come to explore its historic buildings, to see its museums and galleries, its streets and parks, and its people.
The built-up area of Greater London stretches 50 kilometres from east to west and many of its districts are linked with particular activities, for example, parliamentary and government activity centres on Parliament Square of Westminster and Whitehall. Just as "Westminster" stands for Parliament so "Whitehall" is often used as the name for central Government.
Off Whitehall in a small side-street Downing Street — is a quiet, unimpressive house — No. 10 — the official home of Prime Minister.
Just as Wall Street in New York is the centre of commerce and finance so the City of London, sometimes called "the square mile"23 is the centre for money matters. Here in Threadneedle Street is the Bank of England — sometimes called "The Old Lady of Threadneedle Street" — the central banking institution whose pound24 notes form the main currency in the country. Fleet Street near St. Paul's Cathedral used to be a busy street full of foreign, provincial and London newspaper offices such as The Daily Express, The Daily Telegraph.25
Though most of the British national newspaper offices have moved to Wapping, an area in East London, the name of Fleet Street is still used to describe the newspaper industry.
In South Kensington there are several large museums. The Victoria and Albert Museum with a magnificent collection of fine and applied arts also includes a wide-ranging display of ceramics, metalwork and a selection of Constable's26 masterpieces which are well worth seeing. The Natural History Museum contains plants, animals and minerals. The Hall of Human Biology enables visitors to learn about their bodies and the way they work. Exhibits in the Science Museum display the discovery and development of such inventions as the steam engine, photography, glass-making, printing and atomic physics. There is a gallery where children can experiment with working models. The Museum of London in the City presents the biography of London, from the founding of London by Romans to the Greater London of today. Within a sguare kilometre or so in London's theatre-land are over thirty theatres, showing a large range of old and modem plays. Smaller "fringe" theatres27 perform in clubs, pubs and at lunch time.
London is full of parks and green spaces. Hyde Park, originally a royal hunting forest, is the largest park in London. In summer the Serpentine canal which flows through the park is always full of swimmers, rowers and sunbathers. Just south of the Serpentine is. Rotten Row, a fashionable spot for horse-riding, and in one corner, near Marble Arch is Speakers' Comer; where everyone can go and air their views to anyone who will listen. Beyond Hyde Park lies another royal park, Kensington Gardens. Children gather by the statue of Peter Pan, James Barrie's28 well-known storybook character, or sail their model boats on the Round Pond. In the north of London is Regent's Park with a zoo and an open-air theatre. A trip along Regent's Canal in a riverboat gives a chance to see London Little Venice, a quiet countryside area for rich people only as the land here is very expensive.
Like many capital cities, London grew up along a major river. The Thames divides London sharply in two. Most of central London is on the north bank of the river. The Thames at London is tidal and there have been several serious floods. The risk of this is increasing as southern England is sinking in relation to sea level. Threat of disaster, however, has been lessened by the construction of a flood barrier.
It is always interesting for tourists to take a trip along the Thames in a boat as it gives a striking panorama of London. The best way to see the city quickly is from the top of London red double-decker buses. Special tourist buses go on two-hour circular tours. The other quick and easy way of getting around London is by "tube" — the Underground railway. During the "rash hours", when office workers hurry to and from work, the tube train doors can hardly close behind the crushed crowds.
London is an ancient city. But it is also a living city and like all living cities it is constantly developing.
1. historic adj исторический (имеющий историческое значение, вошедший в историю), е.g. historic place, date, speech, event, battle, etc. 1812 was a historic year for Russian people.
historical adj исторический (связанный с историей, имеющий отношение к истории), е.g. historical materialism, science, principles, method, approach (to); historical novel, picture, play, film; historical department, museum, etc.
history n история, е.g. the history of our country, the history of the language; a history lesson; the History Museum.
Note 1: In names of academic subjects no article is used, е.g. History of the English language is a difficult subject
Note 2: The Russian word история has several English equivalents: а) история (ход развития чего-л.) — history, е.g. This town has an interesting history.; b) рассказ, повествование — story, е.g. I don't like stories of such kind. He told us the story of his whole life.; с) происшествие — event, е.g. Tell us something about this strange event. But: A funny thing happened to him. (С ним произошла забавная история.) There's a pretty kettle of fish! (Вот так история!)
2. worth n ценность, е.g. It's a discovery of great worth. This information is of no worth.
worth adj predic стоящий; worth smth., е.g. This picture is not worth the money you've paid for it. This problem is not worth our attention. This job is not worth the time we've spent on it.; worth doing smth., е.g. This film is worth seeing. Books of that kind are not worth reading. This problem isn't worth discussing. His illness is hardly worth troubling about.; worth while, е.g. It isn't worth while seeing the film. It isn't worth while sitting here till 5 o'clock. It is worth while trying to catch the train, I think it's worth while speaking to him about it. Cf.: This book is worth reading. — It is worth while reading this book.
worthy adj достойный, е.g. She is a very worthy woman.; to be worthy of smth., smb., е.g. His behaviour is worthy of great praise.
unworthy adj недостойный
3. masterpiece n шедевр
piece n 1. кусок, ps a piece of chalk (wood, paper, etc.)
Syn. lump, slice. A slice is a thin, flat piece cut off from anything, as a slice of bread (cheese, lemon, ham, etc.). A lump is a small specially shaped or shapeless piece, as a lump of sugar (butter, etc.).
to pieces на куски, е.g. The cup fell and was broken to pieces.
2. отдельный предмет, часть, е.g. a piece of furniture; a, piece of poetry (стихотворение); a piece of painting (картина); a piece of advice (совет); apiece of news (новость);
3. монета, е.g. a two-shilling piece, a gold (silver) piece
Syn. coin (used more often than piece)
4. human adj человеческий, свойственный человеку, е.g. a human nature, the human body, human affairs, a human being (человек); hu'mane adj гуманный, человечный
inhuman adj бесчеловечный, as inhuman treatment
humanity n (uncountable) 1. человечество, as a crime against humanity
Syn. man'kind n (uncounfable). But 'mankind мужчины, мужской пол
2. гуманность, человечность, as to treat people with humanity
the Humanities гуманитарные науки; syn. the Arts, е.g. Are you interested in the Humanities (the Arts) or in the Exact Sciences (естественные науки) ?
5. to strike (struck, struck) υt 1. ударяться, бить; to strike smb., to strike smb. (smth.) on smth. е.g. He struck the boy a violent blow. The man struck Lanny on the face. He struck his fist on the table.
Syn. to hit (hit, hit), е.g. Why did he hit the boy?; to hit one's hand (foot, head, etc.) on smth., е.g. I hit my head on the low shelf.
Note: strike and hit may be used in the same sense — to strike or to hit smb. — but care should be taken to use the proper verb m traditional word combinations such as to strike a match чиркнуть спичкой, e, д. Somebody struck a match so that we couid see each other.
2. бить (о часах), е.g. It has just struck half past four. This tower clock strikes the hours.
3. поражать, удивлять, а д. We were struck by bis strange behaviour. It struck me that he had grown so old. Many things might strike us as unusual in a foreign country.
Syn. to surprise, to astonish, to puzzle
Nоte: to be struck means "to be filled suddenly with a strong feeling of surprise". That distinguishes the verb to strike from its synonyms to astonish and to surprise; to astonish is stronger in meaning than to surprise, е.g. I shouldn't be surprised if it rained. I'm not surprised at seeing you here, I've been told about your arrival. I was astonished at seeing him so changed. I was struck by his sudden death.; to puzzle means "to make a person think hard before finding an answer", e.g. His letter puzzled me. (= I didn't know why he had written it)
striking adj, as striking likeness (news, contrast) stricken pp. terror-stricken; horror-stricken; panic-stricken
Note: the verb to strike has homonyms: a) strike υi бастовать, b) strike n забастовка, е.g. All the railway workers joined the strike.; to go on strike объявлять забастовку
6. circular adj круглый, круговой, е.g. There is a circular railway running round Moscow. A circular staircase led to the top of the tower.
circulate υ 1. циркулировать, е.g. Blood circulates in the body.; 2. передаваться, распространяться, е.g. Bad news circulates quickly.
circulation n 1. циркуляция, е.g. The circulation of air is rather bad here, that's why it is stuffy.; 2. распространение, обращение (денежное), е.g. Only silver and copper coins are in circulation now.
blood-circulation n кровообращение
circle n 1. круг, окружность, е.g. It's almost impossible to draw a circle without a pair of compasses (без циркуля).; 2. группа, круг людей, е.g. Не belonged to the business circle of the town.
NOTES ON HOMONYMS
Homonyms are words that coincide in form, but have different meanings and. may (or may not) belong to different categories or parts of speech. Homonyms may coincide both in phonetic and in graphic form, as ball, n (мяч) and ball, n (бал) or fair, adj (светлый, справедливый и др. знач.) and fair, n (ярмарка). They may coincide only in pronunciation, but have different graphic forms, as sea, n and to see, v. They may coincide in spelling, but be differently pronounced, as lead [led] n (свинец) and to lead [li:d] υ (вести).
ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY (I)
ancient adj finance n piece n
astonish υ flood n possibility n
built-up adj historic adj pound n
circle n historical adj puzzle υ
circular adj human adj sea level
circulation n humanity n settlement n
coin n (the) Humanities slice n
commerce n lump n stretch υ
currency n mankind n strike υ
double-decker n masterpiece n striking adj
entertainment n Parliament n traffic n
exhibit υ parliamentary adj worth n, adj
to break to pieces to go on a tour to turn smth. into smth.
a panorama (view) of to have a possibility for to be a surprise to
to stand for smth. to strike a match to be worthy of smth.
to strike a blow a piece of advice to go on strike
fine and applied arts to be a surprise to smb. to take a trip
Roman the Victoria and Albeit Museum
the Thames Constable
Londinium the Natural History Museum
Westminster the Science Museum
Whitehall the Museum of London
Downing Street Hyde Park
Fleet Street the Serpentine
St. Paul's Cathedral Marble Arch
South Kensington Kensington Gardens
1. Read the text and talk as the following points (A. Grammar, B. Word usage, С. Word-formation):
A. 1. What tense group is mainly used in the text and why?
2. Find passive voice constructions and translate the sentences with them.
B. Translate the sentences beginning with just as ... so into Russian.
C. Search the text for compounds, comment on their structure. Find derivatives with the suffixes -ment, -er, -ly and classify them according to the category of speech.
II. a) Search tee text and the footnotes for the English equivalents of the sentences and phrases listed below:
A. 1. превратить маленькое кельтское поселение в крупный торговый город; 2. иметь возможности для развлечений и занятий спортом; 3. музей стоит осмотреть; 4. великолепное собрание произведений изобразительного и прикладного искусства; 5. совершить прогулку на речном трамвае по Темзе; 6. обозначать, подразумевать; 7. открывается панорама города.
B. 1. солидные, «серьезные» газеты; 2. сообщения о событиях внутри страны и за рубежом; 3. спортивные новости; 4. сплетни, не представляющие интереса; 5. перейти на десятичную денежную систему; б. монета в 50 пенсов.
b) Use them in sentences of your own.
III. a) Spell and give the four forms of the following verbs:
[grEu], [bIld], [q'trxkt], [send], [dI'spleI], [flEu], [laI], ['hArI], [straIk], [pAzl].
b) Transcribe the following words:
Celtic, settlement, commerce, finance, explore, kilometre, parliamentary, magnificent, ceramics, metalwork, photography, atomic, royal, canal, sunbather, major, barrier, panorama, double-decker, disaster.
c) Write the degrees of comparison of:
narrow, small, great, old, quiet, worthy, busy, easy.
d) Find homonyms in Text of Unit Three.
IV. a) Analyse the morphological structure of the word sizable, explain its meaning and give its Russian equivalent
b) Form adjectives from these verbal stems by adding the negative prefix fprrjuks] on-, and the adjective-forming suffix -able. Explain the meaning of the derivatives and translate them (in one word):
eat, read, break, forget, pardon, describe, desire, imagine, believe.
V. Write questions based on the text. Use in your questions the suggested word combinations. Ask your questions in class:
1. to turn smth. into; 2. buildup area; 3. the home of; 4. to stand for; 5. the official home of the Prime Minister; 6. "the square mile"; 7. the central banking institution; 8, to be full of; 9. fine and applied arts; 10. the Science Museum; 11. theatreland; 12. to air one's views; 13. to gather by; 14. to grow up; 15. threat of disaster; 16. to give a panorama; 17. the "rush hours".
VI. Try your hand at teaching. (See "Classroom English", Sections VI, VIII, IX, X.)
A. Preparation. Write 2—3 special questions about each paragraph of the text and footnotes. See to it that new words, phrases and patterns are used either in your questions or in answers to them.
B. Work in class. Put your questions to the class and comment on the answers (express your approval or disapproval; correct the mistakes, if there are any; add some details if necessary, etc.).
VII. Make up a dialogue based on one of the paragraphs of the text or the footnotes. Speak for a Russian and an English student. Try and give an additional piece of information on the topic Use the prompts:
Have you heard (about)...?; Do you happen to know...?; Have you got any idea?; Someone has told me that...; That's what I heard; I'm afraid I don't know much about...; I wonder if you remember...; Have I got it right?; Am I right to believe?; Absolutely; Exactly; That's very surprising!; That's amazing!
VIII. a) Comment on the dialogue below:
A.: How can you be so stupid as to think that London is beautiful!
В.: Stupid! What nonsense! Of course it's beautiful. Look at all the parks and Buckingham Palace and all the churches.
A.: Rubbish! They're filthy and full of junk.
В.: For goodness sake, why don't you open your eyes? Walk around instead of just driving round in a taxi all day! (Hargreaves R. and Fletcher M. Making Polite Noises, Lad., 1982)
b) Make up similar dialogues on the sights of your native town. The following phrases might help you:
I don't agree at all. You must be joking! There's no evidence for that. Oh, that's ridiculous! Nonsense! Rubbish! I don't believe that at all. You don't know what you're talking about. You're completely wrong about that.
IX. Fill in a suitable word or phrase: a) surprise, astonish, strike, puzzle:
1. I won't be ... if he gets a "five", he is a very bright boy. 2. We were ... by the contrasts between wealth and poverty in Delhi. 3. His question ... me. I didn't know how to answer it. 4. I was ... to meet him in town, I was sure he had not come back yet. 5. His cruelty... us. We always thought that be was kind and sympathetic.
b) piece, lamp, slice:
1. Pick up the ... of the broken cup and throw them out. 2. Give me a... of paper. I'll show you how to make a boat for the child. 3. I'd like to take one more ... of cake. May I? 4. I never put more than two ... of sugar into my tea. 5. I need a short ... of string to tie the parcel with. 6. I'd like to have a ... of lemon with my tea.
c) historic or historical:
1. Red Square is a ... spot: many ... events took place in it. 2. In his ... novels Walter Scott gave a wonderful description not only of ... events, but of whole ... epochs. 3. The ninth of May is one of our most important... dates: we celebrate our ... victory in World War II. 4. There are many ... monuments in Moscow.
X. Retell the Text Use the map of London on pp. 114-115.
XI. a) Fill in preposition» wherever necessary:
Please remember: traffic ... Britain keeps ... the left! So when crossing a street look right first then left. If possible cross ... zebra crossings, sometimes indicated ... flashing orange lights ... either side ... the road.
Speed limit ... Britain is 70 mph (= miles per hour); ... built-up areas 30 mph. Careful riding is essential as there are many narrow and winding roads.
Roads ... fast long-distance driving are called motorways. The best known is the motorway ... London and Leeds. Road signs are mostly the same as those used ... the continent. The same goes ... traffic lights.
b) Speak about the traffic in this country using the word combinations in bold type.
ХII. a) Explain the meaning of these proverbs. Translate them. Give their Russian equivalents:
A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush. The game is not worth the candle. An hour in the morning is worth two in the evening. Between two evils 'tis not worth while choosing.
b) Say whether you agree with Lord Goring's opinion that "It is always worth while asking a question, though it is not always worth while answering one." (O. Wilde. "An Ideal Husband")
ХIII. Translate the sentences into English, using a) be well worth + ger/n or b) just as... so:
1. He стоит кататься сегодня по Темзе, ветер слишком сильный. 2. Стоит прислушаться к его совету. 3. Не стоит тратить время на вещи, которыми вы не интересуетесь. 4. Стоит посетить Музей науки в Лондоне и посмотреть, как дети занимаются моделированием. 5. Подобно тому как Вестминстер часто обозначает парламент Великобритании, так Сити — ее финансовый центр. 6. Подобно тому как под «гуманитарными» науками подразумевают историю, литературу, иностранные языки, так под «естественными» науками — физику, химию, ботанику и др.
XIV. Arrange micro-dialogues on the following topics:
1. How old Moscow is. Where and how it started. 2. What money is in circulation in this country. 3. What the most popular papers in Moscow are. 4. Why Muscovites like their underground railway. 5. What the most popular museums in Moscow are. What is exhibited-there? 6. What you know about parks in Moscow. 7. The traffic in the capital.
XV. a) Read and translate the text:
Apart from more important news printed on the first page with big headlines in bold type there are many other sections in the paper. Some people turn at once to classified ads (called by that name because advertisements are arranged in groups like: "to let", "property wanted", "situation vacant", etc.). For those who are interested in clothes there are fashion pages. You can find out what's on by looking in the advertisement guide. Some like to look through the whole paper reading a headline here, glancing at an interesting article there, looking at a political cartoon, maybe, or reading some of business news.
b) Answer the suggested questions:
1. Do you read papers to catch up with the latest news or are you interested in some particular problems? Why? 2. Where can we find the most important political, business and cultural news in our papers? 3. In which of our newspapers can you find advertisements? Are they classified in any way? 4. Are there any political cartoons and amusement guides in our papers? 5. Are you used to studying a newspaper thoroughly or just glancing at an article here and there?
XVI. Translate the sentences into English:
1. Докладчик говорил о будущем человечества. 2. Эта картина всегда привлекает восетителей музея. 3. Надпись на памятнике озадачила туристов: никто из них не сталкивался с древнеанглийским языком. 4. Мы удивились, когда узнали, что в Гайд-парке у Марбл-Арч любой человек может высказывать свои суждения по любому поводу, часто там можно услышать много чепухи. 5, Вот объявление, которое вам нужно, 6. Поверьте мне, этот молодой человек достоин вашего уважения. 7. Теперь в Англии в обращении фунты и пенсы. 8. 1945 год — исторический год для всего человечества 9. Каждая английская газета имеет определенный круг читателей. 10. В Лондоне, как и в любом столичном городе с большим движением, бывают дорожные происшествия. П. С Воробьевых гор открывается удивительная панорама Москвы. 12 Помещение обогревается горячей водой, циркулирующей по трубам. 13. Сотни новых домов вырастают во всех городах нашей страны. 14 Богатая коллекция произведений изобразительного и прикладного искусства привлекает посетителей этого музея. 15. Экспонаты Исторического музея в Москве знакомят посетителей с развитием цивилизации на территории России. 16. Предельная скорость в жилых районах Москвы 60 км/час.
ХVII. a) Read the text. Retell it adding some more Information about Parliament
The first Westminster Palace was built by Edward the Confessor in about 1050 and was used as a royal residence, then as the seat of Government and finally, after 1547, as the meeting place for Parliament. The fire of 1834 destroyed most of the original buildings. The new building for Parliament was designed by Sir Charles Barry in 1840. The general style is gothic.
There are two "Chambers" or "Houses" of Parliament — that of the Commons and that of the Lords. The more important and powerful of these is the House of Commons, whose members are elected by the public. The Prime Minister and most of the Government are Members of the House of Commons. The House of Lords is made up of Lords who have inherited their titles and the right to sit in the House, and "life peers" who are appointed by the Queen on the advice of the Government of the day.
Half of the building of Parliament is used by the Commons and the other half by the Lords. At the Westminster Bridge end is the residence of the Speaker, who presides over meetings of the House of Commons and at the other end is the residence of the Lord Chancellor, who presides over the House of Lords.
Parliament's most important function is the making of laws. Before a new law (or Bill) can come into effect, it must pass through three stages in each House and be given the Queen's approval. It then becomes an Act of Parliament. (See: Mountefield A. London. Lnd., 1979)
b) Say what you know about the Russian Parliament, i. e. two chambers: the Duma and the Council of Federation.
XVIII. Give the idea of the text in English:
После более чем десяти лет споров по поводу того, стоит ли допускать телевидение в британский парламент, лорды, наконец, разрешили установить камеры в своей палате. Однако палата общин отказывается принять такое же решение. Один из основных противников телетрансляций заседаний парламента — премьер-министр М.Тэтчер. Она оправдывает свою позицию тем, что подобные передачи потребуют слишком больших затрат. Но, как считает лондонский корреспондент американской газеты «Крисчен сайенс монитор», причина упорного сопротивления Тэтчер кроется в нежелании делать достоянием гласности критические выступления в адрес ее правительства. А как заявил во время недавних дебатов лорд Уайтлоу, немалую проблему представляет и тот факт, что многие парламентарии на заседаниях попросту спят. Появление на телеэкранах дремлющих законодателей отнюдь не послужит росту их авторитета. («За рубежом», № 9, 1985)
XIX. Read and comment on the following:
Гильдия лингвистов-экспертов по документационным и информационным спорам Общество любителей российской словесностиМонографияЯзыковой вкус интернет-эпохи в России (функционирование русского языка в Интернете: концептуально-сущностные доминанты): Монография. – М.: Изд-во РУДН, 2008.
- Г 421 Гершель, Джон. Философия естествознания: Об общем характере, пользе и принципах исследования природы : пер. с англ. / Гершель, Джон. - Изд. 2-е.