Владимира Дмитриевича Аракина одного из замечательных лингвистов России предисловие настоящая книга
TEXT C. AT THE DENTISTS
Nell: Hello, is that you Bert? Nell here. I'm so glad I've found you in.
Bert: Hello, Nell. How's things?
N.: Fine. Listen, Bert. I'm bursting with news. Just imagine: yesterday I had the first real patient of my own.
В.: You don't say! Who was it?
N.: A nice old dear with a lot of teeth to be pulled out. It's such wonderful practice for me!
В.: Are you quite sure that some of his teeth couldn't be filled?
N.: None of them! I sent him to have his teeth X-rayed, so it's all right.
В.: How did you manage to get such a marvellous patient, I wonder?
N.: He came with a bad toothache. It had been bothering him for a day or two already.
В.: Were there no other dentists in the surgery?
N.: No, I was the only one. It was Sunday.
В.: Poor old thing! I hope you didn't try to pull out all his teeth at once, did you?
N.: Don't be silly. I just chose the easiest one to begin with.
В.: I see... And how did you get along?
N.: Wonderfully. I tested his blood pressure and gave him a couple of injections, though he said that my smile worked better than any injection.
В.: Oh, he did, did he? And he didn't have heart attack after the tooth was taken out? It would have been natural for an old man.
N.: No, he just felt a bit sick and giddy. I gave him с tonic and told him to stay in bed for a while and take his temperature.
В.: Perhaps I'd better drop in and check his heart? I'm on sick leave now and can do it at any time.
N.: You needn't. I'll ring him up and in case he's running a high temperature I'll let you know. But I do hope he won't. The day after tomorrow he's coming again,
В.: Are you sure he's not going to make an appointment with some other dentist?
N.: I don't think he will. When he was leaving he said he looked forward to having all his teeth pulled out and he would keep them all as souvenirs to remember me by.
В.: Well, I wish you good luck. Hope to hear from you soon. Bye for now, Nell.
N.: Good-bye, Bert. I'll let you know how things are going on.
For every evil under the sun.
There is a remedy, or there is none.
If there be one, try to find it.
If there be none, never mind it.
ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY (П)
appendicitis n insomnia n
attack (of smth.) n prescription n
case (of a disease) n recover (from a disease) υ
cholera n remedy n
complication n scarlet fever n
cough υ, n sneeze о
cure of υ sore (throat, eye, finger, etc.) adj
cure for n surgery n
die of υ symptom n
diphthertia n tonic n
disease n treat υ (smb. for a disease)
indigestion n treatment (for smth.) n
injection n typhoid fever n
to feel smb.'s (one's) pulse to write out a prescription (for pills, etc.)
to go to a chemist's (drugstore) to follow the doctor's directions
to catch (a) cold to have an accident
to be short of breath to examine a patient (smb.'s throat etc.)
to breathe in deeply to consult (see) a doctor
to have a nervous breakdown to keep to a diet (of ...); to be on (go on), follow a diet
to have a prescription (medicine, mixture, tonic, etc.) made up
to take medicine (a spoonful of, etc.)
to be wrong with (one's heart, lungs, etc.); to have smth. wrong with
to be taken ill (to fall ill) with to be laid up with
to feel sick (and giddy) to fill smb.'s tooth
to have one's tooth filled, to have a filling
to pull (take) out a tooth = to have an extraction
to have one's tooth pulled out (taken out), extracted
to be (have one's teeth, chest, heart, etc.) X-rayed
to test smb.'s blood to have one's blood tested
to test smb.'s blood pressure to have one's blood pressure tested
to have, get (give) an injection (a needle)
to have a heart attack
to check smb.'s heart, lungs, etc.; to sound smb.'s heart, lungs, etc.
to be on sick leave; to get sick leave
to make an appointment with a doctor
He was taken to hospital and operated on (underwent an operation) for appendicitis.
After I've had some injections of tonic I feel quite cured of all my ailments.
The child is ill (laid up) with chicken pox (ветрянка). He'll soon recover if no complications set in.
Smallpox (оспа) is a catching (заразная) disease marked by fever and small red spots on the body and often leaves permanent marks.
I've been on sick leave for a fortnight already, but I don't feel any better so far.
The doctor diagnosed the illness as tuberculosis (t. b.).
A doctor who performs (carries out) operations is called a surgeon. Nowadays operations may be performed almost on any part of the body.
When people have pain in their teeth they go to a dentist to have the holes in their teeth filled (stopped). When necessary they may have their teeth taken (pulled) out.
People who are treated in health centres (policlinics) are called out-patients, those who stay in hospital are called inpatients.
Something is wrong with my legs: all my joints ache and when I bend my knee it hurts me.
The old man's sight is getting dim (слабеет), his eyes are sore, swollen and itching.
N o t e: Don't say "He wrote me a prescription out"; but "He wrote out a prescription for me".
I. Study Text A and explain the meaning of the words and phrases listed below.
in an unthinking moment, idly turn the leaves, a fatal malady, premonitory symptoms, complication, to walk the hospitals, to time the pulse, all for nothing, the prescription ran, a family hotel, to follow the directions, his life was preserved.
II. a) Write English equivalents of the following words and phrases. Use them in sentences of your own:
1. застыв от ужаса; 2. заинтересоваться чём-л.; 3. интересный случай с медицинской точки зрения; 4. защищать диплом; 5. отнимазь у кого-л. время; 6. каждые шесть часов; 7. забивать голову непонятными вещами.
b) Write these words in English and transcribe them:
болезнь, симптом, отчаяние, тиф, алфавит, дифтерит, холера, талия, скарлатина, аптекарь.
c) Find in the text synonyms of the following words and phrases and explain how they differ:18
illness (4 words), friend, doctor, look quickly, imagine, do a favour to smb., die.
III. Write 10 questions to Text A covering the main points. Prepare to discuss the test using the words and phrases from Ex. П.
IV. Study Texts В and С and translate these sentences into English:
1. Я страдаю от бессонницы. 2. Я все время чихаю и кашляю. 3. У меня болит горло. 4. В довершение ко всему я простудился. 5. Я задыхаюсь. 6. С легкими у вас все в порядке. 7. Глубоко вдохните через нос. 8. У вас может быть нервное расстройство. 9. Регулярно питайтесь и придерживайтесь овощной диеты. 10 По столовой ложке три раза в день. 11. Обещаю полное выздоровление в течение трех месяцев. 12. Я Это обдумаю. 13. Я рада, что застала тебя дома. 14. У меня уйма новостей. 15. Ни одного! 16. Она досаждала ему уже два дня, 17. Я была единственным врачом в приемной. 18. Бедняжка! 19. Не говори глупостей! 20. Для начала я как раз выбрала самый легкий зуб. 21. Ну, и как у тебя пошли дела? 22. Я сделала ему пару уколов. 23. Может быть, мне лучше забежать..? 24, Он их сохранит на память обо мне.
V. Reproduce Text В so that a question is asked about each sentence said by the patient or the doctor. Recite the dialogue in class.
Example: Patient: You'd better ask me what is not the matter with me, doctor.
Doctor: Is it really as bad as that? What are you complaining of ?
Patient: Insomnia... and pains in the stomach.
Doctor: Oh, dear, isn't it too much for one man?
VI. Relell Text С in indirect spech: a) speaking on the part of the old man;
b) reproducing Nell's talk with Bert over the telephone. You may find the following phrases useful:
a) to look a miserable wreck, to suffer from, to cheer smb. up, to be in despair, to be in high spirits; b) to be afraid that, to be sorry for, to doubt smb.'s skill, to wonder if..., to feel hurt, to suggest that one should...
VII. Study Essential Vocabulary (II) and
a) translate the illustrative examples into Russian;
b) express in writing the suggested idea using do for emphasis. Add a sentence to show that the emphasis is necessary:
Examples: Your brother did go to the chemist's to have your prescription made up though he was pressed for time. Mother told you to put on your coat but you wouldn't and you did catch a cold.
1. to have a nervous breakdown; 2. to keep to a diet; 3. to try to make an appointment with; 4. to give (get) an injection; 5. to get sick leave; 6. to set in (about complications); 7. to prescribe pills for; 8. to undergo a treatment; 9. to recover from; 10. to diagnose Smb.'s illness (as); 11. to have one's tooth filled; 12. to need the services of a surgeon.
VIII. a) Supply prepositions where necessary:
Scarlet fever is an infectious fever, marked .. the appearance ... the second day ... a bright red rash consisting ... closely-set red spots. Shortly after the patient develops a high temperature and suffers ... painful sore throat. ... the third or fourth day the rash starts to fade and ... favourable cases the temperature falls and the patient feels better. ... the end ... a week the rash usually disappears. Complete recovery may be expected ... the following month, The complications ... scarlet fever are very serious, the commonest being inflammation ... the ear. Scarlet fever is essentially a disease ... children and young persons.
b) Give a short description of some other disease using a few phrases from the text above.
IX. Correct the following statements, beginning each sentence with one of the following phrases:
You're wrong. You're mistaken. I can't agree with you. Nothing of the kind. But... (it is, they don't, etc.). I don't think you're right. Of course not. Just the other way round. On the contrary. Surely not! By no means!
Example: — You never take your temperature when you аге ill.
— Oh, yes (of course), I do. I always take my temperature when I'm ill.
1. Sick people never stay in bed while they are ill. 2. You were laid up with-flu last week, I believe. 3. It is not dangerous to take care of a person who has got a catching disease. 4. People often feel sick and giddy when they are quite well. 5. We seldom sneeze and cough when we have a cold. 6. You never have a sore throat when you have tonsillitis. 7. She doesn't feel any pain in her heart when she has a heart attack. 8. Children have swollen eyes when they have been laughing too much. 9. People need the services of the doctor when they are well, I think. 10. Probably you consult a dentist when you have a stomach-ache.
X. Read the text. Summarize it in 5-6 sentences without using direct speech;
Hob sat in the doctor's waiting-room. On the chairs at the wall other patients were sitting. They all looked sad except Hob who was reading an exciting story in a magazine. Just then the doctor came in to say that he was ready to see the next person. Hob got up and went into the consulting room.
Before Hob could say a word the doctor said, "Now what's the trouble? Sit down there and we'll have a look at you. Unfasten your jacket and your shirt, please. I'll listen to your heart." Hob tried to speak, but the doctor interrupted him and ordered him to say "ninety-nine". Hob said it. "Now let me see your throat, open your mouth wide." The doctor had a good look and then he said, "Well, there's nothing wrong with you." "I know there isn't," said Hob, "I just came to get a bottle of medicine for my uncle."
(From Essential English for foreign students by С. Е. Eckersley, Lnd.. 1977)
XI. Write 10 sentences to go with each of the pictures on pp. 68, 71.
XII. Answer the following questions:
1. What are the symptoms of flu (tonsillitis, measles, mumps, scarlet fever, etc.)? 2. Who is treated at the policlinic, and who is treated at the hospital? 3. What do you do when you fall ill? 4. What does the doctor do when he comes to examine you? 5. What do you feel when you have flu? 6. How does a sick person look? 7. How should we translate into Russian "He is ill" and "He has ill manners"? 8. What catching diseases do you know? 9. Do people in this country get their pay when they are ill?
ХIII. Translate the following sentences into English:
1. Я, должно быть, схватил грипп. 2. Вам лучше обратиться к врачу. 3. Врач пощупал мой пульс, прослушал сердце и легкие и измерил температуру. 4. Она не в состоянии разговаривать, у нее ужасно болит зуб. 5. Я вся дрожу. Должно быть, я простудилась. 6. Я не могу читать вслух, у меня болит горло. 7. Беспокоиться не о чем, его успешно прооперировали. 8. Я, пожалуй, приму эти пилюли от головной боли. 9. Почему ты ходишь в такую погоду без шляпы? Ты ведь недавно серьезно болел. У тебя могут быть осложнения. 10. Вам сделали рентген? 11. Вот рецепт. По столовой ложке микстуры три раза в день. 12. Вы послали за доктором? 13. У вас два больных зуба. Вам нужно обратиться к зубному врачу. 14. Врач попросил пациента раздеться до пояса и выслушал его. 15. Кто пойдет в аптеку заказать лекарство? 16. Если бы ты не следовала советам врача, ты бы не поправилась так скоро. 17. На вашем месте я придерживалась бы диеты, у вас ведь не в порядке желудок. 18. Как жаль, доктор забыл выписать мне лекарство от насморка. 19. Почему у вас одышка — у вас высокое давление или что-нибудь с сердцем? 20. Ребенок болен скарлатиной. Придется ему дней десять полежать в постели.
XTV. Make up stories and dialogues through mime19.
Have the students to prepare a mime and perform it twice (for tasks A and B). The performed actions should be rather slow to allow the other students to tell the story or speak for the mimes.
A. Describe the actions of the mimes using the Present Indefinite, Continuous or Perfect tenses. (for one or two students)
B. Speak for each mime. (for two students)
С Tell the story in reported speech orally or in writing. (for one student)
Suggested topics and stages for actions:
1. At the Doctor's
a) A patient enters the room and tells the doctor what he (she) is suffering from.
b) The doctor asks the patient to strip to the waist and examines him (her).
c) The patient asks the doctor what's wrong with him. He seems to be worried.
d) The doctor tries to comfort the patient and writes out a prescription.
2. At the Dentist's
a) A patient complains of a bad toothache.
b) The dentist asks him to sit down and examines his mouth. One of his teeth should be pulled out.
c) The patient is afraid. He feels sick and giddy.
d) The dentist pulls out his tooth and shows it to the patient who brightens up and looks happy.
3. At the Bedside
a) A boy complains of a sore throat.
b) His mother is worried. She takes his temperature, it's normal. His throat is all right
c) Then the boy pretends to have a stomach-ache and a headache, to be sick and giddy.
d) His mother understands his tricks and orders him to go to school.
XV. Try your hand at teaching.
Find a picture on a medical subject and ask your "pupils" to describe it.
A. Preparation. a) Make up a list of new words (in spelling and transcription) that might be needed to discuss it.
b) Write questions about the picture, using the phrases: in the picture, in the foreground [background), in the right(left-) hand corner, to the right (left) of.
c) took up the words and phrases you may need to discuss the picture in class in "Classroom English", Section V.
В. Work in Class. Show the picture to the members of your group; write the new words on the blackboard, translate them (or explain their meaning) and make the students repeat them in chorus; ask your questions.20
XVI. a) Give the idea of the text in English:
Сколько стоит аппендицит?
Бумажка была счетом за удаление у «мистера Стрельникова» аппендицита. Одному из нас с подобного рода бумагой пришлось столкнуться впервые, и было очень интересно читать: «Анализ крови — 25 долларов. Плата хирургу за операцию — 200 долларов. Анестезия — 35 долларов. Плата за каждый день пребывания в госпитале — 200 долларов. Плата за телевизор — 3 доллара в день». И так далее. Всего расставание с аппендицитом мистеру Стрельникову стоило 1112 долларов! Сюда входит плата врачу за постановку диагноза, за удаление ниток из шва...
Если бы мистер Стрельников пожелал продлить пребывание в госпитале до существующей у нас нормы (семь дней), бумажка счета стала бы вполовину длиннее. Как гражданин страны, где медицинское обслуживание бесплатное, денег из своего жалованья мистер Стрельников не платил. Уплатило за него государство. А в больнице он был столько, сколько бывают американцы, — три дня. (Стрельников В., Песков Б. Земля за океаном. М., 1975)
Prompts: bill, anaesthesia, to take out the stitch, twice longer.
b) Say what you know about the cost of health service in America, in Russia and in other countries nowadays.
ХVII. a) Bead and translate the texts below:
1. In Great Britain primary health care is in the hands of family practitioners who work within the National Health Service. The family practitioner services are those given to patients by doctors, dentists, opticians and pharmacists of their own choice. Family doctors who are under contract to the National Health Service have an average about 2,250 patients. They provide the first diagnosis in the case of illness and either prescribe a suitable course of treatment or refer a patient to the more specialized services and hospital consultants.
A large proportion of the hospitals in the National Health Service were built in the nineteenth century; some trace their origin to much earlier charitable foundations, such as the famous St. Bartholomew's and St. Thomas' hospitals in London.
About 85 per cent of the cost of the health services is paid for through general taxation. The rest is met from the National Health Service contribution and from the charges for prescriptions, dental treatment, dentures and spectacles. Health authorities may raise funds from voluntary sources.
(See: "Britain 1983". Lnd., 1983)
2. Nobody pretends that the National Health Service in Britain is perfect. Many doctors complain that they waste hours filling in National Insurance forms, and that they have so many patients that they do not have enough time to look after any of them properly. Nurses complain that they are overworked and underpaid.
3. Many Health Service hospitals are old-fashioned and overcrowded, and, because of the shortage of beds, patients often have to wait a long time for operations. Rich people prefer to go to private doctors, or to see specialists in Harley Street, the famous "doctors" street in London. When these people are ill they go to a private nursing-home, for which they may pay as much as £ 100 a week. Alternatively, they may hire a private room in an ordinary hospital, for which they will pay about £ 10 a day.
(Musman R. Britain To-day. Lnd., 1974)
b) Write 10 questions about the facts mentioned in the texts that you find interesting and discuss them in class.
XVIII. Find some jokes on a medical subject and tell them to your fellow-students.
XIX. a) Give а very short description of each picture in the Present Tense. Use prompt words and phrases listed in the Note.
b) Make up a story about the pictures in the Past Tense c) Find a short title to the story.
Note: сточная труба — sewer; носилки - stretcher; санитарная машина — ambulance; санитар - ambulance man; операционная operating-room; гипсовая повязка — plaster-bandage.
XX. Film "Mr.Brown's Holiday". Dilm segment 2 "Miss Peggy and the Pussy Cays" (Canterbury), a) Watch and listen, b) Do the exercises from the guide to the film.
STUDIES OF WRITTEN ENGLISH
This time you will learn more about the smallest thought units that build up writing, beginning with a paragraph and how they work within the paragraph.
Key-words are main words in the passage that help to emphasize the main point and understand the subject you are writing about. That is why key-words are the first elements to choose when setting your mind on writing on a certain subject and there are different ways to use them in a paragraph: repeating them, using synonyms, bringing them in close semantic relation.
E. g. "He read the letter slowly and carefully. It was not the kind of case he wanted, it was not the kind of case he had promised himself. It was not in any sense an important case..." (From "The Nemean Lion" by A. Christie). Hercule Poirot, the famous detective of A. Christie's had been dreaming of an unusual case. That one about the kidnapping of a dog was a disappointment. It was not a proper case for him.
The central thought of the paragraph is emphasized by repeating the key-word, otherwise echo-word.
1. Go over the test "A Day's Wait" and pick out the key-words and phrases that indicate the topic: of illness and treatment. Arrange them into three groups according to the ways that are commonly used to point out the central thought. Which is the largest group and why?
2. Prepare a list of key-words end phrases before writing a paragraph: a) describing how the poor boy looked before the doctor саше; b) telling a story of his recovery; c) arguing about the turning point in his illness; d) explaining the difference between miles and kilometers, between the Fahrenheit thermometer and the Centigrade thermometer.
LABORATORY EXERCISES (II)
1. a) listen to the text "A Victim to One Hundred and Seven Fatal Maladies", mark the stresses and tunes, b) Repeat the test following; the model.
2. Listen to the dialogue "A Visit to the Doctor". Repeat the text in the interval and record your version. Compare your version with the original and correct your mistakes.
3. Respond to the following suggestions. Begin your sentences with "Hadn't we (he) better.."?
4. Extend the statements. Begin your sentences with "It's time you (he, etc.)" + a verb in the Past Subjunctive.
5. Write a dictation. Check the spelling using a dictionary.
6. Translate the given sentences into English. Check them with the key.
7. Listen to the text "Doctor Sally" or some other text on the topic. Get ready to act it out in class.
CURIOSITY QUIZ FOR EAGERS
1. Stop a hole in a tooth with cement, etc. 3. Seize something with the teeth (also cause a sharp pain). 11. Fill a hole in a tooth with cement, etc. 13. Fibers (волокна) connecting the brain with all other parts of the body and carrying feelings to the brain. 14. Let out the air suddenly through the nose and the mouth (usu. when having a cold). 18. An instrument for measuring temperature. 19. A kind of medicine having good effects on the body. 23. The middle joint of the leg where the leg bends. 25. A hollow in the lungs (каверна). 27. A person who practises medicine and treats people. 28. The drink made by pouring boiling water on dried leaves bearing the same name, often used as a tonic. 29. A coloured liquid used for writing with a pen. 30. Take one's clothes off. 31. Come into two or more parts; crack a bone, joint.
2. Breathing organs found in man and animal. 3. Take air into the body and send it out. 4. Exist. 5. The degree of heat or cold in the air, water, body, etc. 6. Be still, relax after work, efforts, etc. 7. Small spots (red or pink) close together on the skin (usu. a symptom of a disease). 8. Difficulty in digesting food. 9. Be aware through the senses. 10. A catching disease marked by fever and small spots that cover the whole body (common among children). 12. Give medical care to people in order to cure them. 15. A high temperature. 16. The red liquid in the body. 17. The regular beating of the arteries as the blood is forced along them. 20. An open sore (язва, нарыв) on internal organs. 21. A special choice of food ordered by a doctor. 22. Ill, unwell. 24. A person specially trained to look after sick people. 26. A short sleep. 27. Not clearly seen.
Гильдия лингвистов-экспертов по документационным и информационным спорам Общество любителей российской словесностиМонографияЯзыковой вкус интернет-эпохи в России (функционирование русского языка в Интернете: концептуально-сущностные доминанты): Монография. – М.: Изд-во РУДН, 2008.
- Г 421 Гершель, Джон. Философия естествознания: Об общем характере, пользе и принципах исследования природы : пер. с англ. / Гершель, Джон. - Изд. 2-е.