Владимира Дмитриевича Аракина одного из замечательных лингвистов России предисловие настоящая книга
NOTES ON STYLE
A. The terms style, stylistic are generally used in two different meanings. In lexicology the term functional style is used which may be defined as a system of expressive means peculiar to a specific sphere of communication. Otherwise speaking, the choice of words and of modes of expression depends on the situation in which the process of communication is realized, whether it is a friendly talk, an official letter or report, a poem, a scientific article, etc. According to the situation (or the sphere of communication) we may distinguish formal (bookish, learned) and informal (colloquial) words. The former are peculiar to fiction, scientific prose, lectures, official talks; the latter are used in everyday talks with friends and relatives. One should also keep ip mind that there are a great number of words that are independent of the sphere of communication, i. e. that can be used in a lecture, in an informal talk, in a poem, etc. Such words are stylistically neutral (е.g. bread, word, book, go, takes, white, etc.).
Students should be warned against taking the term colloquial as a kind of encouragement to use words thus marked as much as possible. The term implies that the words called colloquial are limited by their sphere of usage and, if used in a wrong situation (е.g. in a student's composition, in a conversation with an official acquaintance or with one higher in authority), may produce the impression of impoliteness or even rudeness.
E. g. He is a jolly chap. = Он парень что надо, (chap n, coll.; jolly adj, coll.) The stylistically neutral way of putting it is: He is a good (fine) man.
How are the kids? = Как ваши ребята? (kid n, coll.) The stylistically neutral way How are your children?
I'm all right. = Co мной все нормально. (all right coll.) The stylistically neutral way I feel (am) quite well.
Neutral Colloquial Bookish
begin start commence
continue go on proceed
end, finish be over (through) terminate
buy get purchase
Note also that such abbreviations as I'm, I've, I'll, you'd, you're, etc. are characteristic of colloquial style. Therefore, students will be well advised to avoid them in their compositions, essays, precis, etc.
B. The term style may be also used with reference to the manner of writing of some particular author. E. g. Hemingway's style is characterized by laconism and lack of detail. The syntax of his sentences is very simple, the dialogues are almost monosyllabic and seemingly unemotional. Yet, through the austere form the author manages sometimes to create a narration of great tension.
ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY (I)
ache υ, n flue n painful adj
avoid υ foot n pneumonia n
bare adj medical adj prescribe υ
barefoot adj predic, adv medicine n prescription n
bare-headed adj miserable adj shiver υ
condition n naked adj tremble υ
epidemic n pain n vacant adj
to have (got) a headache to give smth. up
to take one's (or smb.'s) to make a note (notes) of smth.
temperature so far
to bring down the fever at the foot (head) of the bed
to be in (a) good (bad) to read to oneself (aloud)
condition to go to sleep (cf.: to fall asleep)
to live (work) under good to stay (be) awake
(bad) condition (s) flushed by the fever (anger,
to be in no condition to do smth. excitement, etc.)
on condition that to flush with
to write (put) smth. down to take smth. easy
1. Read the text and the Notes on Lexicology and Style and talk on the following points (A. Grammar, B.Word usage, C. Style):
A. 1. Why does the author use or drop the definite article before the word bed in the sentences: "We were still in bed." "You'd better go back to bed," "I sat at the foot of the bed."
2. Why is the Infinitive used with or without the particle to in the sentences: "Do you want me to read to you?" "I heard him say a hundred and two."
3. In the sentence "It's nothing to worry about" ft is a personal pronoun. What noun does it stand for? (Note: The English for «Нечего беспокоиться.» would be "There is nothing to worry about.")
4. Tick off the sentences with the Infinitive used as an attribute.
5. Tick off all the complex sentences with clauses joined without the conjunction that, е.g. "I know (that) he is ill."
B. 1. What did the father mean when he said "You'd better go back to bed"? (Add some words to show the implication.)
2. Paraphrase the sentences: "I'd rather stay awake" and "just take it easy."
3. What is the difference between the boy's words "...if it bothers you" and "...if it's going to bother you." (Translate the sentences with these phrases into Russian.)
4. How and why did the boy paraphrase his question "about what time... I'm going to die?"
5. The boy lay with his eyes fixed at the foot of the bed. What synonyms and why did the author use to describe the situation? (See Vocabulary Notes in Unit One.)
C. 1. Comment on the choice of words in Hemingway's story from the point of view of their stylistic colouring. What style prevails, formal or informal?
2. What can you say about the dialogues in the story and their stylistic peculiarities?
3. Comment on the syntax of the story and the stylistic effect achieved by it.
4. What is the general atmosphere of the story? Is the tension gradually increased? How is the effect achieved? What is the point of the highest tension (climax) ?
II. a) Choose the best translation of each English sentence below (or give your own variant) and reason oat your choice;
I. I'd rather stay awake, 1. Я предпочитаю бодрствовать. 2. Я лучше не буду спать.
II. ...as though it ached to move. 1. ...как будто ему было больно двигаться. 2. ...как будто движения причиняли ему боль,
III. He seemed very detached from what was going on. 1. Казалось, окружающее его не интересует. 2. Он казался полностью отрешенным от всего происходящего. 3. Он, казалось, не замечал того, что происходит вокруг.
IV. But his gaze at the foot of the bed relaxed slowly. 1. Его взгляд становился все менее напряженным. 2. Он уже не с таким напряжением смотрел перед собой. 3. Его взгляд, устремленный на спинку кровати, постепенно терял свою напряженность.
V. The hold over himself relaxed too, finally, and the next day it was very slack. I. Сдержанность его тоже, наконец, ослабла и на следующий день была очень незначительной. 2. Он перестал держать себя в руках и на следующий день был совсем вялым. 3. В конце концов его контроль над собой тоже стал слабеть, и на следующий день он совсем раскис.
b) Translate the description of the father's walk.
III. a) Copy, transcribe and give Russian equivalents of these words:
ache, fever, medicine, capsule, purgative, germ, acid, influenza, various, pneumonia, area, pirate, natural, bother, prescribe, bush, brush, worry, thermometer, absolutely, relax.
b) Give the four forms of the verbs:
shut, overcome, lie (лежать), lay (класть), wake, freeze, worry, die,
c) Make four columns and write numbers I, П, III and IV at their tops to represent four types of syllables. Then pick out from the list above ('a' and 'b') words with vowel sounds illustrating different types of syllables and place them in right columns.
IV. Try your hand at teaching.
(Look up the words and phrases you may need to do the task in "Classroom English", Sections IV, VIII.)
A. Preparation. a) Pick out from the text and from the introduction to it words with the letter с in them. Divide a sheet of paper into ten columns with the following letters at the top of each column: 1) с+е, 2) c + i, 3) c + a, 4) c + o, 5) c+u, 6) c+a consonant, 7) с in the ending -ic, 8) c + h = [tf], 9) c+h= [k], 10) c+k=[k].
Classify the words under each heading.
b) Make up your own list of words to illustrate the same rules.
B. Work in Class. a) Show the table with 10 columns to your fellow-students and explain how с should be pronounced in each case.
b) Dictate the words from your list to the students and ask one of them to spell them on the blackboard. Correct the mistakes.
V. Answer the questions:
1. What were the symptoms of the boy's illness? 2. Why did it seem to the father that the doctor knew all about influenza? 3. What worried the boy? Since when? 4. Why did the boy prefer to stay awake? 5. What were the symptoms of the boy's nervous strain that the father took for the symptoms of his illness? 6. Wouldn't it have been more natural if the boy had told his father about his fears? Why? 7. Do you like the boy's behaviour? How does it characterize him? 8. How would you explain the contrasts in the boy's behaviour on the first and the second day of his illness? 9. Why did the author introduce the description of the father's walk? 10. Do you find the situation described in the story true to life? (Give your reasons.) 11. Do you think you would have behaved in the same way in the boy's place? 12. What do you consider to be the point of the story?
Begin when possible your answers with:
I believe; I think; I'd like to say; In my view; As I see it; I don't think it would...; This is my way of looking at it.
VI. Study Vocabulary Notes and a) write derivatives or compounds of:
refuse, prescribe, pain, ache, condition, bare, like.
b) Give the opposite of:
to read aloud, in good condition, at the foot of the bed (mountain, page), the girl had shoes on, the seat is occupied, the trees are covered with leaves, to be asleep.
c) Give English equivalents of these words and use them in sentences of your own:
голый (2 words), дрожать (2 words), отказаться (2 words).
VII. Fill in
a) ache, hurt, pain, painful:
— What... you?
— I can't say I feel any sharp ... in some definite place, I just... all over.
— Does it... you to move your arms, legs or head?
— My head ... all the time, it ... me to look at the light and each movement is ... .
— Well, I must examine you. Don't be afraid, it won't be ... .
— But, doctor, each touch gives me ....
— Well, try and take it easy.
b) in, on:
— Your child's health is ... a rather bad condition, he must be thoroughly examined in the policlinic.
— But, doctor, he is ... no condition to leave the house, he's too weak.
— Perhaps we'd better take him to hospital then.
— Oh, doctor, isn't it possible to keep him at home?
— Well, only ... condition that you follow all my instructions.
c) refuse, give up:
1. In spite of his father's wish he ... to leave the Medical Institute as he was fond of medicine and didn't want to ... . 2. I decided to break with him after he had ... to help me when I was in great need of help. 3. Though she regularly ... his proposals he couldn't... his dream of marrying her sooner or later. 4. If she asks me for any favour I'll never ... her. 5. If I were you I wouldn't... my plan so easily.
d) like, as:
1. The children jumped and squealed (визжали) ... little puppies. 2. The girl tried to behave ... a grown-up person. 3. She was invited to this conference ... a specialist in medicine. 4. He works ... a doctor in one of our hospitals. 5. You just listen to him, he speaks ... a real doctor, though he doesn't know anything about medicine. 6. ... your doctor, I don't allow you to get up for some more days.
VIII. Write 5 questions after each pattern below. (Keep to the same word order.) Discuss them in class:
1. Do you think the boy would have worried about his temperature if he had known the difference between the Fahrenheit and the Centigrade thermometers?
2. Why, do you think, the medicines were in different coloured capsules?
IX. Retell the text in reported speech following the outline given below:
1. The boy looks ill.
2. The father calls for a doctor.
3. The doctor diagnoses the illness and leaves instructions.
4. The boy seems detached from what is going on around him.
5. The father goes for a walk.
6. The boy's state troubles his father.
7. The father finds out what worries the boy.
8. The boy relaxes.
Use the vocabulary of the text and the words:
to ask (about, if, why), to wonder (whether, why, what...), to say (that), to tell smb. (about smth.), to add (that), to answer (that), to reply (that), to inquire after (smb.'s health), to declare (that).
X. Supply articles where necessary:
1. ... clinical thermometer is ... small thermometer for finding ... temperature of ... body. 2. ... boiling point of ... Fahrenheit thermometer is 212°, of ... Centigrade thermometer — 100° and of... Reamur thermometer — 80°. 3.... kilometer is ... measure of length as well as... mile and... foot;... kilogram and ... pound are ... measures of weight. 4. His high temperature worried... boy because he didn't know... difference between... Fahrenheit and Centigrade thermometers.
XI. Make up short dialogues starting with the sentences below. Try and argue with each other:
1. The mother to the father: You shouldn't have gone for a walk when the child was ill.
2. The father to the boy: You should have told me what worried you.
3. The mother to the boy: You should have let me in, why didn't you?
4. The mother to the father: You might have guessed that something was worrying the boy.
5. The father to the mother: You might have dropped in to see what state the boy was in.
6. The mother to the father (the next day): I don't like the boy's state. Perhaps we had better call the doctor again?
Use such phrases as;
But why should (shouldn't) I?; Well, I don't (didn't) think...; I wish I could, but...; I really couldn't imagine...; What a silly way to talk!; I wish you wouldn't...; I'm really sorry, but...; I really feel bad about it...; What do you think I should have done...?, etc.
Example: Father: You should go to bed at once.
Son: Why should I? I'm all right.
Father: But you aren't. You're shivering and your face is white.
Son: Well, I just feel a bit cold, I'll sit down by the fire.
Father: You are ill and you have a fever.
Sоn: How do you know?
Father: I knew it just when I put my hand on your forehead.
XII. Translate into English;
1. В каких условиях вы жили, когда были ребенком? 2. Я записала все его замечания по этому вопросу. 3. Если бы ты вчера приняла эти таблетки, ты сегодня чувствовала бы себя гораздо лучше. 4. У девочек был совсем несчастный вид, когда им сказали о болезни их матери. 5. Позволь детям побегать босиком, это не причинит им вреда. 6. Все больные одинаковы: нервничают по пустякам и ведут себя как дети. 7. На вашем месте я бы не записывала все эти данные, они не имеют большого значения. 8. Если ты не будешь спать, ты будешь отвратительно чувствовать себя завтра. 9. Мне нравится этот врач, потому что он не прописывает слишком много лекарств. 10. Он снова отсутствует? Это похоже на него: пропускать уроки, когда у вас письменная контрольная. П. Я бы не сказала, что между нами большое сходство. 12. Как будто собирается дождь. Думаю, нам лучше посидеть дома.
ХIII. а) Fill in prepositions or adverbs where necessary and summarize15 the passage:
"Well, you'd better let me take your temperature," said Griffiths.
"It's quite unnecessary," answered Philip irritably.
Philip put the thermometer ... his mouth. Griffiths sat ... the side ... the bed and chattered brightly ... a moment, then he took it... and looked ... it.
"Now, look here, old man, you stay ... bed, and I'll bring old Deacon ... to have a look ... you."
"Nonsense," said Philip. "There's nothing the matter. I wish you wouldn't bother ... me."
"But it isn't any bother. You've got a temperature and you must stay ... bed. You will, won't you?"
"You've got a wonderful bedside manner," Philip murmured, closing his eyes ... a smile.
(From "Of Human Bondage" by Somerset Maugham)
b) Add question tags to the sentences below and answer them. Begin your answers with "Yes, he did/was'', "No, he didn't/wasn't" or "But he did/was" and then give full answers:
Example: — Griffiths didn't want Philip to take his temperature, did he?
— Yes, he did. He saw that his friend looked quite sick and miserable.
1. Philip was not irritated at Griffiths' advice,...? 2. Philip put the thermometer under bis arm, ...? 3. Philip's temperature wasn't all right, ...? 4. Griffiths didn't even try to chatter sitting at his friend's bed,...? 5. Philip thought that there was nothing the matter with him, ...? 6. There was really nothing the matter with Philip, ...? 7. Griffiths didn't want Philip to stay in bed", ...? 8. Philip didn't want his friend to look after him, ...? 9. Griffiths was going to bring a doctor to Philip, ...? 10. Philip smiled because he wanted bis friend to think, that he was all right,...?
XIV. Translate the following text into English:
Мать сидела рядом с кроваткой ребенка, не сводя с него глаз. Ребенок бредил, у него был сильный жар, щеки пылали, а под глазами были темные круги. Зашла соседка, принесла термометр и какое-то лекарство. Она сказала, что это лекарство снизит температуру. Через два часа мать измерила ребенку температуру и увидела, что лекарство не помогло.
Пришел врач и сказал, что у ребенка воспаление легких, но серьезной опасности пока нет. Он спросил, когда мальчик заболел. Мать вспомнила, что еще со вторника он все время говорил, что у него болит голова и ломит все тело.
«Не волнуйтесь. Все будет хорошо, — сказал врач, — но вам бы следовало отвезти ребенка в больницу».
«Я лучше сама присмотрю за ним», — сказала мать.
«Что же, — сказал врач, — не буду настаивать. Не нужно расстраиваться. Если вы будете точно следовать моим указаниям, я уверен, что через несколько дней ему будет лучше».
Врач ушел, но подумал, что было бы все-таки лучше отправить ребенка в больницу.
XV. Make up three short dialogues, using the phrases listed below:
a) to have a headache, to have a fever, to take one's temperature, had better, to have a prescription made up;
b) to consult a doctor, a light epidemic of flu, to prescribe the medicine for, to be light-headed, would rather, to do good;
c) to take smth. easy, to keep from doing smth., there is nothing to worry about, on condition that, to be of no importance.
XVI. Try your hand at teaching.
1. Say what yon would do in the teacher's position:
During a music lesson, while the teacher tried to demonstrate the rhythm of a song, Pete took two pencils and proceeded to drum on a book. The teacher stopped playing and demanded to know who was drumming. No reply came forth, so she resumed her playing. This very instant the drumming started again. The teacher, who had been on the alert, caught Pete in the act.
2. Practise your "Classroom English".
Play the part of the teacher and get your pupils to write a spelling test on the board.
a) Prepare a test on the vocabulary of Unit Two at home.
b) Ask several pupils to write the words on the board.
c) Make sure that the board is properly prepared for writing on it: the writing it eligible; all the mistakes are corrected; the whole class is involved. (See "Classroom English", Sections IV. VIII, IX)
IABORATORY EXERCISES (I)
1. Listen to the text "A Day's Wait", mark the stresses and tunes, repeat the text following the model.
2. Paraphrase the following sentences, combining them into one conditional sentence. Make all necessary changes.
3. Respond to the following sentences according to the model. Use the inverted form of conditional sentences in your responses.
4. Extend the following sentences according to the model. Use the verbs suggested.
5. Write a spelling-translation test a) translate the phrases into English; b) check them with the key.
6. Translate the sentences into English and check them with the key. Repeat the key aloud.
7. Listen to the text "Patients Needed" some other text on the topic. Find English equivalents of the Russian phrases in the text. Retell the text in indirect speech.
TOPIC: ILLNESSES AND THEIR TREATMENT
TEXT A. A VICTIM TO ONE HUNDRED AND SEVEN FATAL MALADIES
From "Three Men in a Boat" by Jerome K. Jerome
I remember going to the British Museum one day to read up the treatment for some slight ailment. I got down the book and read all I came to read; and then, in an unthinking moment, I idly turned the leaves and began to study diseases, generally. I forgot which was the first, and before I had glanced half down the list of "premonitory symptoms", I was sure that I had got it.
I sat for a while frozen with horror; and then in despair Г again turned over the pages. I came to typhoid fever — read the symptoms — discovered that I had typhoid fever— began to get interested in my case, and so started alphabetically.
Cholera I had, with severe complications; and diphtheria I seemed to have been bom with. I looked through the twenty-six letters, and the only disease I had not got was housemaid's knee.
I sat and thought what an interesting case I must be from a medical point of view. Students would have no need to "walk the hospitals" if they had me. I was a hospital in myself. All they need do would be to walk round me, and, after that, take their diploma.
Then I wondered how long I had to live. I tried to examine myself. I felt my pulse. I could not at first feel any pulse at all. Then, all of a sudden, it seemed to start off. I pulled out my watch and timed it. I made it a hundred and forty-seven to the minute. I tried to feel my heart. I could not feel my heart. It had stopped beating. I patted myself all over my front, from what I call my waist up to my head but I could not feel or hear anything. I tried to look at my tongue. I stuck it out as.far as ever it would go, and I shut one eye and tried to examine it with the other. I could only see the tip, but I felt more certain than before that I had scarlet fever.
I had walked into the reading-room a happy, healthy man. I crawled out a miserable wreck.
I went to my medical man. He is an old chum of mine, and feels my pulse, and looks at my tongue, and talks about the weather, all for nothing, when I fancy I'm ill. So I went straight up and saw him, and he said:
"Well, what's the matter with you?"
"I will not take up your time, dear boy, with telling you what is the matter with me. Life is short and you might pass away before I had finished. But 1 will tell you what is not the matter with me. Everything else, however, I have got."
And I told him how I came to discover it all,
Then he opened me and looked down me, and took hold of my wrist, and then he hit me over the chest when I wasn't expecting it — a cowardly thing to do, I call it After that, he sat down and wrote out a prescription, and folded it up and gave it me, and I put it in my pocket and went out.
I did not open it, I took it to the nearest chemist's, and handed it in. The man read it, and then handed it back. He said he didn't keep it.
"You are a chemist?"
"1 am a chemist. If I was a co-operative stores and family hotel combined, 1 might be able to oblige you."
I read the prescription. It ran:
"1 lb.16 beefsteak, with
1 pt.17 bitter beer
every six hours.
1 ten-mile walk every morning.
1 bed at 11 sharp every night.
And don't stuff up your head with things you don't understand."
I followed the directions with the happy result that my life was preserved and is still going on.
NOTES ON SYNONYMS
1. (See Note 1 on p. 18.) Synonyms may also differ by the degree or intensity of the phenomenon described or by certain additional implications conveyed by their meanings. E. g. malady describes a more dangerous illness than disease, sometimes a fatal one, whereas ailment mostly refers to a slight disorder. Malady implies a lasting, sometimes a chronic illness, whereas ailment is short and temporary. Illness is the most general word in the group (the synonymic dominant).
2. Synonyms may differ by their stylistic characteristics. E. g. chum is a colloquial synonym of Mend, to fancy sounds less formal than to imagine. To pass away is a bookish synonym of to die.
TEXT B. A VISIT TO THE DOCTOR
— Well, what's the matter with you, Mr. Walker?
— You'd better ask me what is not the matter with me, doctor. I seem to be suffering from all the illnesses imaginable: insomnia, headaches, backache, indigestion, constipation and pains in the stomach. To make things still worse, I've caught a cold, I've got a sore throat and I'm constantly sneezing and coughing. To crown it all, I had an accident the other day, hurt my right shoulder, leg and knee, and nearly broke my neck. If I take a long walk, I get short of breath. In fact, I feel more dead than alive.
— I'm sorry to hear that. Anyhow, I hope things aren't as bad as you imagine. Let me examine you. Your heart, chest and lungs seem to be all right. Now open your mouth and show me your tongue. Now breathe in deeply, through the nose... There doesn't seem to be anything radically wrong with you, but it's quite clear that you're run down, and if you don't take care of yourself, you may have a nervous breakdown and have to go to hospital. I advise you, first of all, to stop worrying. Take a long rest, have regular meals, keep to a diet of salads and fruit, and very little meat Keep off alcohol. If possible, give up smoking, at least for a time. Have this tonic made up and take two tablespoonfuls three times a day before meals. If you do this, I can promise you full recovery within two or three months.
— And if I don't, doctor?
— Then you'd better make your will, if you haven't yet done so.
— I see. Well, thank you, doctor. 1 shall have to think it over and decide which is the lesser evil: to follow your advice or prepare for a better world.
Гильдия лингвистов-экспертов по документационным и информационным спорам Общество любителей российской словесностиМонографияЯзыковой вкус интернет-эпохи в России (функционирование русского языка в Интернете: концептуально-сущностные доминанты): Монография. – М.: Изд-во РУДН, 2008.
- Г 421 Гершель, Джон. Философия естествознания: Об общем характере, пользе и принципах исследования природы : пер. с англ. / Гершель, Джон. - Изд. 2-е.