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1. Старик, работавший в саду, не сразу заметил меня. 2. Высокий человек оказался инженером, работавшим на этом заводе несколько лет тому назад. 3. Мальчика, продававшего газеты, уже не было видно. 4. Девушка, продававшая неподалеку фиалки, казалось, чем-то напоминала Элизу Дулятл. Очевидно, я был склонен увидеть в Англии то, что когда-то читал о ней. 5. Жители деревни, видевшие девочку в то утро, говорили, что она шла в дальний конец деревни, где была речка. 6. Все, читавшие юмористические рассказы этого писателя, не могут не восхищаться ими. 7. Студенты, читавшие этот очерк, говорят, что он труден для перевода. 8. Мой друг, посетивший Панамский канал, рассказывает много интересного о своем путешествии. 9. Туристы, посетившие Музей Изобразительных Искусств одновременно со мной, выражали вслух свое восхищение. 10. Наконец молодой человек, читавший иллюстрированный журнал, поднял голову и взглянул на меня. 11. Человек, спрашивавший дорогу к мосту Ватерлоо, вдруг куда-то исчез. 12. Молодой рабочий, спрашивавший меня, откуда я приехал, показался мне знакомым, я определенно его уже видел. Но где? 13. Он заметил, что пожилой джентльмен, пристально смотревший на него, делает ему таинственные знаки. 14. Человек, принесший письмо от Артура, хотел поговорить с ней наедине. 15. Они часто думали о своих друзьях, работавших на Дальнем Востоке. 16. Наши друзья, работавшие на Дальнем Востоке, вернулись в Москву. 17. Мики, переводивший трудную статью, даже не взглянул на меня. 18. Мики, переводивший эту статью, говорит, что мы должны непременно прочесть ее в оригинале. 19. Шофер, медленно вылезший из машины, выглядел очень усталым.

134. Point out the Second Participle and state its functions in the sentence:

1. His name was well-known among the younger writers of France. 2. London, like most cities which have a long history behind them, is not really one single city, but rather a collection of once separated towns and villages which in the course of time have grown together. 3. The door opened. A little frightened girl stood in the light that fell from the passage. 4. The broad thoroughfare which runs between Trafalgar Square and the Houses of Parliament, is known as Whitehall. 5. The child kept silent and looked frightened. 6. Finella glanced up at the top of the hill. High in the air, a little figure, his hands thrust in his short jacket pockets, stood staring out to sea. 7. He lived in a little village situated at the foot of a hill. 8. He fell asleep exhausted by his journey. 9. If you hadn't caught sight of him at the door he might have slipped out unnoticed. 10. In the coppice they sat down on a fallen free. 11. Seen from the Vorobyev Hills the city looks magnificent, and especially at night in the electric light. 12. She entered the drawing-room accompanied by her husband and her father. 13. On one side the Kremlin opens upon Red Square. There, near the Kremlin Wall, is Lenin Mausoleum, made of granite. 14. Presently I grew tired and went to bed. 15. Locked in her room, she flung herself on the bed and cried bitterly. 16. She sat for a while with her eyes shut. 17. The house in which Denby lives is little more than a cottage, looked at from outside, but there are more rooms in it than one would think.

133. Replace the attributive clauses in the following sentences by phrases with the Second Participle, where possible:

I. By a residential college we mean a college with a hostel which is usually situated on the same grounds as the principal building. 2. The slogan which was made by Mike's brother attracted everybody's attention. 3. The child that was left alone in the large room began to scream. 4.1 have a letter for you which was received two days ago. 5. They were all pleased with the results which were achieved by the end of the month. 6. His words, which he uttered in an under-tonie, reached my ears. 7. The boy who had broken the windowpane ran away and did not appear till the evening. 8. The storm that caused a lot of harm to the crops abated late at night. 9. He said that the book which I had chosen belonged to his grandfather. 10. I asked the librarian to show me the magazines which were sent from the German Democratic Republic. 11. Everybody felt that in the farewell dinner there was sadness which was mingled with festivity. 12. We were all looking at his smiling face which was framed in the window of the railway-carriage. 13. There was another pause which was broken by a fit of laughing of one of the old men sitting in the first row. 14. There lay a loaf of brown bread which was divided into two halves. 15. The English people love their green hedges which are covered with leaf and flower in summer, and a blaze of gold and red in autumn. 16. From his essay we learn about various goods which are produced in Birmingham and the adjoining manufacturing towns. 17. The teacher told us that the centre of the cotton industry is Manchester, which is connected with Liverpool by a canal. 18. In the South of England we find fertile valleys which are divided by numerous hedges. 19. Tennis is one of the most popular games in England which is played all the year round. 20. They say that in their college, as well as in ours, the students have lots of exams which are held at the end of each term.

136. a) Translate the following word-groups into English. Pay attention to the place of the Second Participle:

иллюстрированный журнал; журнал, иллюстрированный известным художником; разбитое стекло; стекло, разбитое накануне; сломанный карандаш; ветка, сломанная ветром; взволнованные голоса; дети, взволнованные происшедшим; потерянный ключ; ключ, потерянный вчера; газеты, полученные из Лондона; письмо, написанное незнакомым почерком; закрытая дверь; дверь, запертая изнутри; девушка, приглашенная на вечер; упавшее дерево; книга, упавшая со стола; украденные документы; документы, украденные у секретаря; оконченное сочинение; сочинение, оконченное в спешке; мальчик, испуганный собакой; высокоразвитая индустриальная страна.

b) Make up sentences with the word-groups you have translated.

137. Point out the Complex Objects with the Second Participle. Translate the sentences into Russian;

1. He had his luggage sent to the station. 2. How often do you have your carpets cleaned? 3. Have you got your watch repaired? 4.1 want it done as soon as possible. 5. We decided to have our photos taken after the final exam. 6. Get the rooms dusted and aired by the time they arrive. 7. I haven't had my nails polished yet. 8. I'm having a new dress made. 9. He thought it necessary to have the ceiling of the room whitewashed. 10. They found the door locked. 11. Mrs. Mooney watched the table cleared and the broken bread collected. 12. He heard his name called from behind.


138. State the function of the Infinitive in the following sentences and translate them into Russian:

1. To live a healthy life in the country was good for them. 2. It was a great happiness to him to discover that she was in complete agreement with him in opinions. 3. It was a real pleasure to him to give pleasure to others. 4. She had never learned the habit of command: her habit was to ask permission. 5. The dearest wish of his heart was to have a boy. 6. His first act was to seek the tailor that Glover had recommended. 7. Margaret's visit was exciting. He started to plan her reception. 8. The company began to drift in a polite group towards the door. 9. The train began to slow down. "Why, here we are in Oxford!" said the man. 10. We used to play in the garden behind the house. 11. Now you can do whatever you like. 12. But she had to turn round again; her father was coming. 13. "Listen, Gilbert, I've got to talk to you seriously." But Mr. Pinfold would not answer. 14. Dixon tried to suppress his irritation. 15. He asked us not to move and stay where we were. 16. He taught his boy to swim. 17. Mary warned us not to be late, 18. My dear child, it's not a thing to joke about. 19. "How am I to find that house," he thought, "There isn't anyone to ask." 20. This is the right thing to do. 21. I need a pen to write with. 22. "I don't want anything to eat," said Felicity. 23. And William went to London to start a new life. 24. He opened his eyes too late to see the momentary gleam of light from the corridor. 25. I wish I were young enough to help you.

139. Complete the following sentences, using infinitives or infinitive constructions:

1. I didn't expect... . 2. Oh, how nice of you ... . 3. We are all very glad ... . 4. She doesn't like ... . 5. What would you do if you saw ... . 6. I'm so sorry ... .7. The book seems ... . 8. It would be of great use ... . 9. What is done ... . 10. There's nothing ... . 11. The difficulty is ... . 12. I'm not quite sure... . 13. It hasn't yet been decided .... 14. He is unlikely ... . 15. Nobody will ever make ... . 16. You are too inexperienced ... . 17. She appeared ... . 18. She is old enough ... . 19. It's too late, he can't ... . 20. Judging from the shadows under his eyes, he must... .

140. Use the Gerund or the Infinitive of the verbs in brackets. Fill in the blanks with appropriate prepositions:

1. He was so young, so gay, he laughed so merrily at other people's jokes that no one could help (like) him. 2. Yalta is a nice town (live) ... , 3. He was on the point... (quarrel) with her. 4. I want you (help) me (pack) this suitcase. 5. I should love (go) to the party with you; I hate (go) out alone. 6. Don't forget (put) the book in the right place. 7. I forgot (put) the book on the top shelf and spent half an hour or so ... (look) for it. 8. She told me how (make) clothes (last) longer. 9. Mother says she often has occasion (complain) ... (he, come) late. 10. ... (do) the exercise you should carefully study the examples. 11. You must encourage him (start) (take) more exercise. 12. Bob was greatly ashamed ... (beat) in class by a smaller boy. 13.1 looked around me, but there was no chair (sit) ... . 14. We heard ... (he, come) back today. 15. She could not bear the thought ... (he, stay) alone. 16. Are you going (keep) me (wait) all day? 17. He pushed the door with his toe ... (put) his suitcases down. 18. I should have gone (fetch) the doctor instead ... (remain) where I was. 19. Oh, Robert, dearest, it's not a thing (joke) about. I've so loved (be) with you. I'll miss you more than anyone. 20. His first impulse was (turn) back, but he suppressed it and walked in boldly. 21. "I'm sorry, Margaret," he said, "I'm too old (start) (play) hide-and-seek with school girls."

141. Translate the sentences into English, using the Gerund:

1. Ты предпочитаешь готовить сама или обедать в институтской столовой? 2. Нельзя быстро выздороветь, не принимая лекарства регулярно. 3. Я советую вам перестать беспокоиться о ребенке. Он уже вне опасности. 4. Всем понравилась мысль отпраздновать день рождений Джона за городом. 5. Мы решили прогуляться перед тем, как лечь спать. 6. Мальчик боялся появиться дома в таком виде. Было ясно, что он заслуживает наказания. 7. Она не привыкла получать подарки и была удивлена, увидев на столе великолепные розы. 8. Вам не следовало бы настаивать на том, чтобы вам сказали об этом. 9. Из-за одного этого стоило вернуться домой. 10. Мы не могли не улыбнуться серьезности ребенка. 11. Помимо того, что он прекрасный актер, он еще и опытный режиссер. 12. Я не помню, чтобы он когда-либо поздравлял меня с днем рождения. 13. Почему вы отпустили пациента, не измерив ему кровяное давление? 14. Я думаю принять участие в первенстве института по шахматам. 15. Моя спутница поблагодарила меня за то, что я присмотрела за ее багажом. 16. Я очень люблю плавать и стараюсь никогда не упустить возможности искупаться. 17. После этой неприятной сцены она избегала, чтобы ее видели в обществе. 18. Вы не возражаете, если я положу вам еще порцию пирога? 19. Мы не могли даже мечтать о том, чтобы попасть на премьеру этого спектакля. 20. Она продолжала развлекать гостей, как будто ничего не случилось.

142. State whether the -ing- form is a participle, a gerund or a verbal noun:

1. To my mind the setting of the scene was beautiful. 2. As to his stooping, it was natural when dancing with a small person like myself, so much shorter than he. 3. I found him in exactly the position I had left him, staring still at the foot of the bed. 4. If possible, give up smoking, at least for a time. 5. There you can see the Fire of London with the flames coming out of the windows of the houses. 6. Having finished the work, he seemed more pleased with himself than usual. 7. Pausing in his story, Burton turned to me. 8. I admired the grounds and trees surrounding the house. 9: Father said that we were not to let the fact of his not having had a real holiday for three years stand in our way. 10. I saw there wooden cabins with beds, electric light, running water. 11. Most Englishmen are not overfond of soup, remarking that it fills them without leaving sufficient room for the more important meat course. 12. The evening meal goes under various names: tea, "high tea," dinner or supper depending upon its size and also social standing of those eating it. 13. Colleges give a specialized training. 14.1 want you to give my hair a good brushing. 15. The boys could not go without asking permission. 16.1 am much pleased with my surroundings.

143. Point out the verbals and comment on them:

1. She often took care of my little sister Polly giving me a possibility to play with other boys in the neighbourhood. 2. Having bathed her face in cold water, she came up to the window and burst it open. 3. Renton Heath is a charming village, situated in the loveliest part of the West of England? 4. "I'm leaving for South America and have come to say good-bye," Jim said staring into her eyes. 5. She seemed to be asking not him but herself. 6.1 seated myself at the table and was on the point of filling my cup from the teapot when the sound of the door opening made me look up. 7. After spending the night in the farm, the weather remaining fine, they set out again on their journey in the same way. 8. He had to stand aside for the maid to carry in the luncheon. 9. I'm afraid I never seem to get any time for reading. 10. He began moving away down the drive, keeping his eyes on Dixon. 11. It's no use trying to argue with me. 12. Looking in Ferrand's face he saw to his dismay tears rolling down his cheeks. 13. He said it bending forward to be out of hearing of the girl. 14. Douglas sat down again, having evidently changed his mind about going. 15. When we had lain on the bank for some time without speaking I saw a man approaching from the far end of the field. 16. I know why I make you laugh. It's because you're so far above me in every way that I am somehow ridiculous. 17. It was past two o'clock when she heard the car return. There were steps on the gravel, the opening and shutting of the door, a brief murmur of voices — then silence. 18. From room to room he went and, though each gave signs of having recently been occupied, it was clear that its inhabitants had departed. 19. Were it not for his having asked me to spend a week with him in the country, I should certainly be very glad to go with you to Madrid. 20. Get a blanket spread and make them hold it tight. 21. The darkness found him occupied with these thoughts. 22. "Three years ago it was," she broke off and stood still, her mouth set in a rigid grimace of pain. 23. He felt anger against the gipsy for having given them such a fright.








TEXT. A DAY'S WAIT by Ernest Hemingway 20






TEXT. HOW WE KEPT MOTHER'S DAY by Stephen Leacock 49



TEXT. A FRESHMAN'S EXPERIENCE From "Daddy Long-Legs" by Jean Webster 65



TEXT. A FRIEND IN NEED by William Somerset Maugham (abridged) 78









TEXT. ROSE AT THE MUSIC-HALL From "They Walk in the City" by J. B. Priestley 126






SECTION ONE. Review of Fundamental Intonation Patterns and Their Use 143

SECTION TWO. Intonation Pattern IX. High fall 145

SECTION THREE. Intonation Pattern X

SECTION FOUR. Intonation Pattern XI

SECTION FIVE Compound Tunes FALL + RISE 158

SECTION SIX Compound Tunes

SECTION SEVEN Intonation pattern XII









The Infinitive 196

The Gerund 200

The Participles 203


Учебное издание

Аракин Владимир Дмитриевич, Селянина Лидия Ивановна, Куценко Алла Владимировна



Учебник для студентов высших учебных заведений

7-е издание, дополненное и исправленное

Сдано в набор 15.01.05. Подписано в начать 20.05.05.

2 на листе 5000 сум






для транскрипционных знаков использован шрифт PhoneticTM. Но в принципе транскрипции в этом томе мало.

1 Так, первые три урока рассчитаны главным образом на закрепление наиболее употребительных речевых образцов с сослагательным наклонением; в уроках 4—6 даны речевые образцы, выражающие модальность; в уроках 7—9 — речевые образцы с некоторыми видами неличных форм глаголов.

2 Схема заданий дана в конце каждого урока. Предполагается, что упражнения разрабатываются преподавателем в зависимости от подготовленности студентов.

3 Упражнения данного типа даются в книге Селяниной N.И., Куценко А.В., Поповой В.В. и др. «Пособие к практическому курсу английского языка» под ред. В.Д. Аракина (находится в печати).

4 Бархударов N. С, ДйпелцнгД А. Грамматика английского языка. М., 1965; НА. Кобрина, ЕЛ. Корнеева. An English Gramma. М., Просвещение, 1985; ВЗ. Гуревич. Practical English Gramma. М., «Наука», 2003. Kaushanskiya Υ. L and others. A Grammar of the English Language. Leningrad, 1959.

5 term n

School terms in Great Britain are arranged in the following way:

Usually called Approximate dates

the first term the antumn term Sept 5 — Dec. 20

the second term the winter term or spring term Jan. 5 — Mar. 25 (or later, depending on the date of Easter)

the third term the summer term Apr. 15 (or later) — Jul. 20

6 to can the register is used only if the names are called out and the pupils answer. To mark smb. present/absent is often used in connection with registration. The expression to take the register is also used in the sense of "mark".

In schools the form teacher marks the register every morning before lessons, and often before afternoon lessons too. The register is a book with a list of the pupils' full names, addresses and dates of birth. When marked, the register is usually kept in the school office, and not taken to lessons.

In universities and colleges there is generally no formal marking of a register by the teaching staff.

7 cupboard n: a cabinet or closet fitted with shelves.

8 Borstal: an institution (like a prison) for young criminals.

9 break n: This is widely used in schools to denote a 10- or 20-minute interval in the middle of the morning (11—11.30).

Morning break and afternoon break are used in schools which also have a break between afternoon lessons. Lunch break can be used as a translation of «большая перемена». Break may also be used of the shorter time allowed for changing lessons.

Break is not generally used in universities and colleges, except in the sense of the 5- to 10-minute break between one class and the next, because there are usually no other breaks besides the lunch hour.

10 «М-р Браун в отпуске». Авторы сценария: Е. Сергиевская, А. Морозова, А. Штаден. Научные консультанты: Е. Кириллова, Н. Федотова Режиссер А. Штаден. «Леннаучфильм», 1977.

11 Кириллова Е.П., Сергиевская Е.Г. Методические рекомендации к учебному фильму на английском языке «М-р Браун в отпуске" 1978.

12 Schatz (Germ.): darling

13 102 °F (Fahrenheit) correspond to 38.9 °C (Centigrade), The Fahrenheit thermometer is used throughout the British Commonwealth and in the United States. The boiling point of the Fahrenheit thermometer is 212°, the freezing point — 32°, the normal temperature of a human bodyis about 99°. The Centigrade thermometer, used in Russia, France and other countries, has 0° (zero) for its freezing point and 100° for the boiling point

14 Pyle, Howard (1853-1911): an American illustrator, painter and author.

15 to summarize (or to give a summary): to give a short version (usu. in reported speech) of a passage, story, novel, etc. containing its main points only.

16 lb. (pound): a measure of weight = 453.6 g

17 pt. (pint) [paint]: a measure for liquids = 0.57 1

18 See Notes on Synonyms and Antonyms on p. 18.

19 The noun mime has two meanings: 1. a performance without words (пантомима); 2. an actor in such a performance (мим).

20 The first picture should be discussed with the whole group under the teacher's guidance; the other pictures may be discussed m pans.

21 A. D. = Anno Domini (Lat.): in the year of the Lord, new era ['isre].

22 Greater London includes the suburbs of the city all of which are connected with the centre of London and with each other by underground railway lines.

23 mile: a measure of length, 1609 metres. English measures of length (yard — 91 cm, foot — 30 cm, inch — 2.5 cm), weight (stone — 6 kg, pound — 454 g, ounce — 31 g), liquids (gallon — 3.79 lit, pint — 0.57 lit) are not based on the decimal system.

24 pound: a monetary unit circulating in Great Britain. Up to 1971 English money with its pennies, shillings and pounds was not based on the decimal system either: 12 pence for a shilling, 20 shillings for a pound, 21 shillings for a guinea, the latter got its name from the first coin struck from gold on the coast of Guinea. In 1971 Britain changed over to, decimal currency system — 100 new pence to the pound (£). New coins (or pieces) were introduced: the 1/2 p., 2 p., 5 p., 10 p., 20 p. and 50 p. coins.

25 The Daily Express: a "popular" paper for those who prefer entertainment to information. It is largely filled with sporting news, accounts of crime, advertisements (ads.), gossip of little worth (about private life of society people, film stars, etc.) and strip cartoons. Other popular papers are The Sun, The Daily Mirror, The Daily Mail. This kind of newspapers is called the tabloids.

The Daily Telegraph: a daily London newspaper of conservative orientation. It is a "quality" paper for educated readers who are interested in important domestic and foreign news. Other quality papers are The Observer, The Guardian, The Times and The Independent.

26 Constable, John (1776-1837): a famous English painter.

27 a "fringe" theatre stages experimental theatrical plays performed by amateurs.

28 Barrie, James M. (1860-1937): a Scottish novelist. Peter Pan — a fairy-tale boy who refused to grow up preferring to lead children into his magic "Never-Never Land" where they fought pirates.

29 The Duke of Wellington (1769-1852): a famous British general whose army defeated Napoleon at Waterloo in 1815

30 Nelson, Horatio (1758-1805): an English admiral who won the battle of Trafalgar (the Atlantic coast of Spain)

31 In 1973 the library of the British Museum and four other biggest libraries were joined into one — the British Library, which is the biggest national library in the United Kingdom and one of the biggest and best present-day libraries in the world.

32 Xmas [krIsmqs]: an abbreviated form of Christmas. In England Christmas day (the 25th of December) is one of the biggest holidays, devoted especially to family reunion and merry-making with its traditional Christmas tree and Christmas pudding.

33 mantelpiece: a structure of brick, wood or marble above and around a fire-place —an open grate where a coal fire burns. Most old English houses have no central heating. Up to now a great number of flats are warmed by coal fires. Sometimes instead of a coal fire a gas fire or an electric fire may be used, which is more convenient, as it can be lit in a second and turned off as soon as it is not needed.

34 sandwich: two slices of buttered bread with meat, egg, cheese or tomato, etc. between them (cf. the Russian бутерброд). The word has one more meaning: a sandwich (or a sandwich-man, a sandwich-boy) is a man walking along the street with two advertisement-boards hung one in front of him and one behind.

35 the Continent (remember the capital letter and the article): the mainland of Europe, as distinct from the British Isles (the name is used by the British)

36 Compare Essential Vocabulary given in this lesson with the first-year vocabulary on the same topic.

37 One of the students may ask questions, another correct the mistakes after each question and answer

38 college: a place of higher education both in the USA and in Great Britain. The oldest universities in Great Britain are Oxford and Cambridge dating from the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, respectively; the largest is the University of London. Admission to the universities is by examination and selection. Women are admitted on equal terms with men, but the general proportion of men to women students is three to one, at Oxford it is nearly five to one, and at Cambridge eight to one.

A college is sometimes a part of a university. For instance the Universities of Oxford, Cambridge and London are composed of groups of largely autonomous colleges. On the other hand a college may be quite independent. There is a great number of such colleges in Great Britain (technical and commercial colleges, colleges of art, etc.),

39 campus: the grounds of a school, college or university

40 Maeterlinck, Maurice (1862-1949): a Belgian poet and dramatist

41 freshman: (for both sexes) the same as the English fresher. First-year students are called freshers only for about a month until they are used to college (university) life.

42 Arnold Matthew (1822-1888): an English critic and poet 6 poor box: a box (usually in a church) in which money may be placed to be given to the poor. Here: things given as chanty (food, clothes, etc.).

43 polysyllables: words of more than two syllables; they usually have two stresses: the secondary (,) and the main (,) stress, е. д.

44 Of the three universities are considered more prestigious and beneficial. Their graduates have better chances of getting a job. Polytechnics are usually formed on the basis of art colleges and colleges of technology. They combine science and technology, the arts, social studies management and business studies, law and other subjects.

45 From 1st August 1975 the system of teacher training in England is being reorganized. All higher and further education outside the universities including teacher training is being assimilated into a common system. A number of the existing colleges of education are to be merged either with each other or with other institutions of further education (polytechnics and others).

46 Other students who work during the day and study in the evening are part-time students.

47 reader a university teacher of a rank immediately below a professor,

lecturer: a person lower in rank than a reader who gives lectures, especially at a college or university.

48 By School-based experience teaching practice is meant (both "observation period" for junior students and block-teaching practice for senior students).

By Subject studies a broad range of subjects is meant of which a student is to choose two cores (the main subjects).

Education studies means essential knowledge of children, the curriculum, the organization of schools and classes.

49 ball of residence: a more modern term than hostel, used only of student hostels (the abbreviated form hall, with no article, is widely used by students in everyday situations). Hostel is a more general word (a nurses' hostel, a factory hostel, ayouth hostel, etc.).

50 P. E = Physical Education.

51 Ph.. D.: Doctor of Philosophy (title given to completion of any research, no matter which subject you study)

52 mortar board: a flat-topped student's cap

53 Don: a college tutor who directs the studies of undergraduates

54 I.Q. Intelligence Quotient — a number indicating the level of a person's mental development obtained by multiplying his mental age by 100, and dividing the result by his chronological age, the latter generally cot exceeding 16.

55 to swim for one's university: to take part in swimming races held between one's university team and some other teams. Practically every school, college and university in Great Britain has its own sports clubs, and there are various outdoor sports competitions held annually within each school, as well as between different schools, colleges, and universities. These are, as a rule, attended by spectators drawn from all sections of the public, and the Oxford and Cambridge boat races, in which crews from these two universities compete every spring on the Thames, arouse national interest.

56 net-ball: an English game, basically the same as basket-ball (played by women)

57 94,250 square miles: this is about the same size as New Zealand or half the size of France.

58 the Fens: low marshy land with lots of waterways (Фенленд)

59 moors (pl), moor: an area of open waste land; moors in England and Scotland are often used for preserving game.

60 The Channel Tunnel, which links England and France, is a little over 50 km (31 miles) long, of which nearly 38 km (24 miles) are actually under the English Channel.

61 "the Scott country": a hilly country in the south-east of Scotland where Sir Walter Scott (1777-1832), the famous British poet and novelist, lived.

62 the Cheviots (the Cheviot Hills): a wool-producing country in Britain. The Cheviot breed of sheep has given its name to a woollen cloth of high quality.

63 the Lake District: a beautiful place that has become famous thanks to a distinguished trio of poets — William Wordsworth (1770-1850), Samuel Coleridge (1772-1834) and Robert Southey (1774-1843) - who made their homes therе. ("Lake poets" is the name that was given to them.)

64 There are several rivers in Britain that bear the name of Avon. The longest is the Bristol Avon flowing into the Bristol Channel, but best known throughout the world is the one flowing into the Severn. On its banks, in Stradford-on-Avon, the greatest English poet William Shakespeare (1564 -1616) was born and spent his youth.

65 Nowadays there is little industry in London as heavy engineering plants have been moved to the nearest manufacturing towns.

66 hedge: a row of bushes or low trees which are forming a kind of barrier.

67 Trinidad; an island in the Atlantic, to the north-east of South America

68 Tahiti: an island in the Pacific

69 Max Beerbohm (1872-1956): an English essayist, critic and caricaturist

70 Euston: a railway-station in London

71 boat-train: the train that takes passengers to a ship

72 coach: a long-distance bus

73 music-hall: a hall or theatre used for variety entertainment: songs, dancing, acrobatic performances, juggling. (Note: "music-hall" must not be confused with "concert-hall".)

74 the doors for the second house were just opening: the second per­formance was about to begin. In music-halls and in circuses two or more performances with the same programme are given every day.

The same term is used with reference to cinemas: the first (second, third) house первый (второй, третий) сеанс.

75 picture theatre (colloq.): a cinema

76 turns: (here) actors taking part in the programme. Turn — a short per­formance on the stage of a music-hall or a variety theatre (номер програм­мы). The programme of a variety perfomance usually consists of various turns.

77 little people: (here) fairies, elves, and gnomes of folklore

78 i. e. buildings meant for the performance of plays by professional com­panies.

79 In England (including London) only a few theatres have their own per­manent company (they are called repertory theatres). Theatrical companies are usually formed for a season, sometimes staging only one play for either a long or a short run, their managements having previously rented a theatre for them to perform in (the so-called non-repertory theatres).

80 The part of the theatre which has a stage and seats for the audience is called auditorium or house (also: theatre-house).

The long rows of chairs situated on the ground floor of the auditorium in. front of the stage are called the stalls (front rows) and the pit (back rows).

The stalls and the pit are surrounded by boxes. There are also some balconies encircling the auditorium on three sides. The lowest of them (coming immediately above the boxes) is called the dress-circle and the highest (somewhere near the ceiling of the house) is known as the gallery.

In most theatres the seats for the audience are separated from the stage by the orchestra-pit. In some theatres, however, there is no orchestra-pit, and the musicians are placed behind the scenes (back-stage). The sides of the stage and the scenery placed there are called wings.

81 It takes quite a number of people to put on a play. The treatment of a play, the style of the production, the training of the performers depend on the director (also called by some people producer in Great Britain). The stage-manager is the person in charge of the technical part of the production of a play. There are also make-up artists, people who make the costumes, those who design the props and scenery, and finally, stage hands.

The actors taking part in the play are called the cast (cf. the Russian «состав исполнителей»).

82 The tests of the stories and dialogues recorded on the tape see on p. 426.

83 The High Rise and the High Head + the High Rise belong to the same pattern since they have no difference in attitudes.

84 Before studying modal verbs the students must learn all the forms of the infinitive.

85 Subordinate clauses with that .„ should can be used as an alternative to the more usual infinitive constructions: They decided that the strike should continue, instead of They decided to continue the strike. See: "A Practical English Grammar for Foreign Students" by A. J. Thomson and A. V. Martinet, Lnd., 1964, p. 174-175.

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