Владимира Дмитриевича Аракина одного из замечательных лингвистов России предисловие настоящая книга
NOTES ON SYNONYMS AND ANTONYMS
1. Synonyms are words expressing the same notion, but differing by certain additional characteristics. E.g. to look, to stare and to gaze express the same notion of turning one's eyes on something or somebody, but stare and gaze differ by their emotional colourings (see item 1 of Vocabulary Notes) whereas look describes the notion generally, without any additional characteristics. Such a general word in the group of synonyms is called the synonymic dominant.
To glance is another synonym of this group which differs from the rest of them by duration: it means looking at something briefly, passingly, a moment only.
2. Antonyms are words with contrasted meanings. E. g. different — alike; convenient — inconvenient; love — hate; up — down.
ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY (I)
chorus n, υ differ υ join υ
comfort n, υ difference n look n, υ
comfortable adj different adj rest n, υ
convenience n gaze n, υ run υ
convenient adj headmistress n stare n, υ
depend υ unite υ
to fix one's eyes on/upon smb. to keep an eye on smb.
to feel helpless to give (send) a message
to give a smile (a nod, a look, etc.) to turn one's eyes (gaze)
to bear (to have) a strong upon smb./smth.
resemblance to to run across
to motion to smb. to run into
to give out (pencils, leaflets, readers, to run over
workcards, sets of material, etc.) to shout smb. down
to call the register (the roll) to abandon hope
I. Read the test and talk on the following points (A. Grammar, B. Word usage):
A. 1. Why is the Present Perfect used in "... as soon as you've called the register"? 2. Why is the Past Perfect Continuous used in "... who had been crossing and uncrossing his eyes in an ugly manner ..."? 3. Why is the Present Indefinite used in "... till you join us"? and in "If there's anything that puzzles you ..."? 4. Tick off all the sentences with the oblique moods. Translate them.
B. Pick out all the words and phrases describing the children's actions.
II. Read the following words with silent t, p, gh. Memorize them:
hasten, fasten, listen, Christmas, castle, whistle, jostle, nestle, wrestle; cupboard, pneumonia, psychology, raspberry; neighbour, nightingale, straight, naughty, high, height, through, sigh.
III. a) Write the Past Indefinite and Past Participle of the verbs:
grow, creep, bear, break, keep, think, leap, mean, fall, find, feel, say, cling, hear, meet, run, show;
b) the Past Indefinite and Present Participle of the verbs:
differ, prefer, murmur, appear, occur, recover, remember, chatter, refer, stir, water, fear, offer, drag, wag, plan, chat, slip, beg.
IV. Find nouns related to the verbs below. Pay special attention to the spelling of the suffix -ence/-ance. Place them in two columns:
depend, differ, exist, accept, resemble, attend, perform, insist, occur.
V. What nouns are these adjectives derived from? What is the meaning of the suffixes -еd, -у? Translate the adjectives:
a) freckled, nosed, haired, winged, homed, bearded, feathered;
b) watery, skinny, grassy, silky, bony, branchy, wavy, stony.
VI. Answer these questions:
1. How was Anne introduced to her class? 2. What did she feel at that moment? What words does the author choose to describe her feelings? 3. What instructions did the headmistress give to the young teacher? What do you think of them? 4. Why did Anne "look with fresh interest at Arnold?" Describe Arnold's appearance and behaviour. 5. How did the other children behave in Miss Enderby's presence? (Find words describing their behaviour.) 6. Why do you think "there came a faint sigh of relief" after Miss Enderby left the classroom? Describe the children's behaviour after she left. 7. What advice given her at college did Anne remember? Did she follow the advice? What was the result? Why did the children behave like that? 8. How did Anne restore the order? Do you think it was the only way out? 9. Comment on the words: "Anne's self-esteem crept back".
VII. Comment on the meaning of the prepositions for, in, with in the sentences below:
A. 1. ... you are very, very lucky this term to have Miss Lacey for your new teacher. 2. They chose him for their leader. 3. Must you have George for a master — here, and our mother for a school-mistress? 4. I still want you for my wife.
B. 1. "Perhaps you could say 'Good morning' to your new teacher?" suggested Miss Enderby in an imperative tone. 2. "Good morning, children," responded Anne in a voice which bore no resemblance to her own. 3. They conversed in a whisper.
C. 1. They gazed back in some bewilderment. 2. If a man is in grief, who cheers him; in trouble, who consoles him; in wrath, who soothes him; in joy, who makes him double happy; in prosperity, who rejoices; in disgrace, who backs him against the world? Who but woman?
D. 1. Anne looked with fresh interest at Arnold. 2. Anne watched this change with some dismay. 3. With a nervous start Anne hastened forward to the door. 4. She remembered with sudden relief some advice given her at college in just such a situation,
E. 1. ... someone yelped with pain. 2. His voice trembled with horror. 3. He was dying with hunger. 4. The boys were speechless with fear. 5. Ruth's eyes were wide with wonder.
VIII. Form adjectives and nouns from the given words with the help of the prefixes an-, in-, mis-, dis-:
convenient, convenience; comfort, comfortable; dependent, dependence; different, difference; able, capable; important; experienced; obedient; understanding; honesty.
IX. a) Fill in prepositions where necessary:
Can you remember your first day... school? It was probably rather confusing. I am sure you ran ... your mother thinking she was deserting you. When the child goes ... school... his first day, he has to watch ... his mother leaving. The teacher must convince him that... the end ... the day his mother and his home will still be there. It is difficult to make the newcomer join ... a game or a walk. A new life, completely different ... what he is used ... begins.
The mothers are as upset as their children. They hang...... their eyes fixed ... their children and dislike leaving them ... their fate.
The best way to deal... the situation is to get the child used ... the idea... school, to help him ... every way. Much depends ... the parents. ... the beginning ... the term the mother should take her child to see the teacher and to look ... the school. The first day should be something to look......and not to be feared.
b) Retell what you've read.
c) What measures would you suggest to settle the newcomers?
X. Study Vocabulary Notes, translate the illustrative sentences into Russian and write your own sentences with the new words and phrases.
XI. Use stare or gaze instead of look where possible:
1. It's impolite to look at people like that. 2. A big crowd stood on the pavement looking at a broken car. 3. No wonder people stand looking at this picture for hours: it's beautiful. 4. The little boys stood looking at each other ready to start a fight. 5. Look at her: again she is looking out of the window with that strange expression of hers. 6. When I looked at her eyes I guessed that she had cried. 7. The Greek myth runs that Narcissus looked at his own reflection in the water until he fell in love with it. 8. He stood looking around as if he tried to impress on his memory everything he saw.
XII. Fill in
a) look or seem:
1. The weather ... quite warm though it's only 5°C above zero. 2. The children ... tired but they... greatly pleased with the trip, don't they? 3. The host and the hostess ... a bit oldfashioned, but they ... to be hospitable and friendly. 4. She ... to be very light-minded, but she only... it, in fact she is a very serious and hard-working student. 5. My brother says that people usually ... what they are and I believe that people are very often quite different from what they... to be.
b) another or different.
1. The teacher tried to explain the rule in a ... way and I understood it at once. 2. The schoolboy returned the book he had read and asked for... book, but of a... kind, he said, as he wanted to have a rest from detective stories. 3. I asked for a pair of shoes of a... kind, but the shop-girl said that the rest of the shoes were not my size.
с) stretch or run:
1. A small stream ... along the road. 2. These steppes ... to the South for miles and miles. 3. The path ... across the field for a mile and then was lost in the forest. 4. No matter how hard I looked I saw only a vast plain... before me. 5. The ugly scar (шрам) ... right across the man's left cheek. 6. For how many kilometers does this forest...?
d) comfortable or convenient
1. I like to sleep on a camp-bed, I find it very .... 2. I believe Friday the only ... day for our meeting, we have only four lectures on that day. 3. Though the flat was rather .... warm, light and cosy, it was not... for our work as it was rather small. 4. These shoes are very... for wear in wet weather as they have rubber soles.
e) join or unite:
1. The two streams ... at the foot of the mountain. 2. ... we stand, divided we fall. 3. One by one the children ... in the game. 4. The partisans’ detachment... the regular army and the enemy lost the battle against their ... forces. 5. All peace-loving people should ... in their straggle against a new war. 6. Won't you... me in a walk?
ХIII. Paraphrase the following:
1. It is of no importance. 2. Rivers flow into the sea. 3. You can't rely on him. 4. Make yourself at home 5. French is unlike English in having far more verbal inflexions. 6. He seems to be ill. 7. Connect these points with a line. 8. This street stretches east and west. 9. He refused to live at the expense of his parents. 10. I disagree with you. 11. I'll drive the car into the garage. 12. Will you come with us? 13. I met him by chance in London last week. 14. Listen to me, Tom! 15. This tool is easy to use. 16. These are not the same people with the same name. 17. Why is Jane silent?
XIV. Translate these sentences into Russian. Write your own sentences with the new words and phrases:
1. He looked about the room and caught sight of the case containing the jewels which had been carelessly left open on the table. 2. The difference was curious between her intense expectation of the previous day and her present indifference. 3. United we stand, divided we fall. 4. My father reminded me that I was entirely dependent upon him. 5. The many men he ran across, belonging to a different world, had filled him perhaps with admiration and envy. 6. I'm always doing things on the spur of the moment — to my own inconvenience and other people's. 7. It made him uncomfortable to alter his plans and think out something new. 8. He was angry with Norah because she had not let the matter rest.
XV. Retell the text: a) in indirect speech; b) as if you were Anne.
XVI. Write: a) a letter from Anne to a friend of hers about her first experience at school, b) an answer of a friend of Anne's to this letter.
XVII. Make up dialogues based upon the text between: a) Anne and a friend of hers, a young teacher discussing their first lessons; b) Anne and Miss Enderby discussing the problem of discipline in class; c) Anne and her college teacher discussing situations like that described in the text.
XVIII. Miss Barrett, a young teacher from Bel Kaufman's 'Up the Down Staircase', once "had an epidemic of unprepared students". Study the reasons they gave for neglecting to do their homework. What other reasons could they have given? Elect one student to play the part of the teacher who should respond in each case. Role-play the whole situation.
Why I Didn't Do My Homework
— I know homework is essential to our well-being, and I did it but I got into a fight with some kid on our way to school and he threw it in the gutter.
— My dog chewed it.
— I didn't know we were supposed to do it.
— I fell asleep on the subway because I stayed up all night doing my homework, so when it stopped at my station I ran through the door not to be late and left it on the seat on the subway.
— I did it but left it home by mistake.
— The baby spilled milk on it.
— My brother took "my" homework instead of "his".
— The page was missing from my book.
— I lost my book and just found it.
— There's no room in my house now my uncle moved in and I have to sleep in the hall and couldn't use the kitchen table.
— Someone stole it.
— What homework?
XIX. Translate the following putting it in your own words. Comment on what yon have read:
... Детей нет — есть люди, но с иным масштабом понятий, с иным запасом опыта, иными влечениями, иной игрой чувств. Помни, что мы их не знаем...
Все современное воспитание направлено на то, чтобы ребенок был удобен, последовательно, шаг за шагом, стремится усыпить, подавить, истребить все, что является волей и свободой ребенка, стойкостью его духа, силой его требований.
Вежлив, послушен, хорош, удобен, а и мысли нет о том, что будет внутренне безволен н жизненно немощен....
Обратили ли вы внимание, как часто, когда раздается в передней звонок, вы слышите просьбу:
— Я отворю?
Во-первых, замок у входных дверей трудный, во-вторых, чувство, что там, за дверью, стоит взрослый, который сам не может сладить и ждет, когда ты, маленький, поможешь...
Вот какие небольшие победы празднует ребенок, уже грезящий о дальних путешествиях, в мечтах он — Робинзон на безлюдном острове, а в действительности рад-радехонек, когда позволят выглянуть в окошко. (Януш Корчак. Как любить детей.)
XX. Arrange a talk on the following topics
1. Difficulties awaiting young teachers.
2. Reasons for children's being unmanageable.
3. How to direct a child's energy into the right channels.
4. Ideal upbringing.
XXI. Translate these sentences:
1. Я огляделась вокруг и увидела, что в поселке (village) не осталось ни одного деревянного дома. 2. Старый доктор остался тем же добрым, искренним человеком, каким (that) мы знали его с детства. 3. Остается по крайней мере месяц до нашего отъезда, но мы уже с нетерпением ждем отпуска и строим разные планы на лето. 4. Дай мне знать, если ты решишь остаться у своей тети на остальную часть каникул, я тогда присоединюсь к тебе. 5. Остается одно: попросить эту старушку присмотреть за детьми. 6. Послушай, я подмету пол и помою посуду, а ты сделаешь все остальное, ладно? — Хорошо. 7. Несколько человек остались на волейбольной площадке, а остальные игроки пошли в бассейн поплавать. 8. Вы ищете ваше пальто? Оно осталось в саду. Разрешите, я его принесу (fetch it).
XXII. Try your hand at teaching.
1. The situation gives below could cause difficulties for the teacher. Describe how you would handle the situation in the teacher's position. Decide amongst your group which is the most practical solution;
Bill, a fourth former, was always telling the class about his dog Timber, the tricks he could perform, what a wonderful watch-dog he was and how Timber would protect Bill. Each week he would come to school and tell about the wonders of Timber.
As it turned out, Bill did not own a dog and none of his relatives or close friends had such a dog.
2. Learn to use alternative ways of controlling the class, using polite requests rather than direct commands.
a) The following forms express annoyance and irritation.
— Do try to work on your own.
— Just speak up a little!
b) You can make your commands sound more polite by using either a low rising tone or words, phrases and structures like "please; I'm afraid; I think; perhaps; don't you think; I (don't) want you to...; I (don't) expect you to...; would you like; would you, please; ..., will you; ..., could you; what if...; let's/let's not."
1. Practise giving instructions to pupils in a polite manner, use the phrases below:
go on to the next exercise, carry on (proceed) reading, repeat what you said, copy this off the board, work in twos (threes), share the textbook, try the next item, practise the irregular verbs, listen carefully to what I say, etc.
2. Take it in turns to play the part of the teacher beginning and finishing the lesson. Make sure that you don't sound too straightforward. (See "Classroom English", Sections II and III.)
LABORATORY EXERCISES (I)
1. Listen to the text "Anne Meets Her Class", mark the stresses and tunes, repeat the text following the model.
2. Respond as shown in the models, check your replies.
3. Combine the sentences into one conditional sentence.
4. Write a spelling-translation test:
a) Translate the given phrases into English.
b) Check them with the key.
5. Answer the questions using the phrases "to like the idea/dislike the idea".
6. Translate the given sentences into English. Check your sentences with the key.
7. Listen to the Jokes connected with school life. Get ready to retell them in indirect speech.
TOPIC: CHOOSING А CAREES
TEXT A. WHAT'S YOUR LINE?
School! Lessons, games, clubs, homework. A bell rings. You go to a classroom. A bell rings. You have lunch. A bell rings. You go home.
But one day you go to school for the last time. What to do after that? You realize that the time to choose one job out of the hundreds has come. It's going to be a hard choice and nobody can make it for you.
Before you can choose, you ask yourself quite a lot of questions. What do you know you are good at? What do you enjoy doing? Perhaps you enjoy working with your hands. Or you may prefer using your head — your brains. Are you interested in machines? Or do you like meeting people? It's difficult to know all the answers to these questions until you have left school and actually begun work.
Many young people consider teaching as a career. It's not surprising: after your parents your teacher may be the most important person in your life. With all the teachers you meet, you think there isn't anything you don't know about the work. That's where you are wrong, since only those who are in it can appreciate it. Have you ever asked yourself why most teachers are so devoted to their work and privately think, though they may not like to admit it openly, that they serve humanity doing the most vital job of all? Those of us who spend our days in schools know how rewarding the job is. At the same time it is not easy and a real challenge to your character, abilities and talent, as teaching is a constant stream of decisions.
Children in your classroom aren't just boys and girls. Every one is a unique individual who has never been before and will never again exist. If you like people, you will love teaching. To be a good teacher you must be genuinely interested in what you are doing.
The most important things in the world are awareness and learning — wanting to know every day of your life more and more and more. Because every time you learn something new you become something new. An ignorant teacher teaches ignorance, a fearful teacher teaches fear, a bored teacher teaches boredom. But a good teacher catalyzes in his pupils the burning desire to know and love for the truth and beauty.
John Steinbeck, writing about his school days said, "I've come to believe that a great teacher is a great artist and you know how few great artists there are in the world. Teaching might even be the greatest of the arts since its medium is the human mind and the human spirit." What an incredible responsibility to be the guardians of the human spirit and the human mind! I think, that is the reason why humanity has the deepest respect for teachers.
I would never stop teaching and I'm sure that you, having chosen it for your career, feel the same way. If you don't feel that way then, please, for all our sakes, get out! The human mind and the human spirit are too wondrous to destroy. But if you are prepared to accept the responsibility, I wish you all the luck in the world.
TEXT B. CHOOSING IS NOT SO EASY AS IT LOOKS
Jane: Hallo, Bob!
Jane: Oh, you've just left college, haven't you?
Jane: What are you going to do?
Bob: Er... well, it looks like a choice between teaching or going into an office and... I think I'd much prefer to go in for teaching, because... well you get long holidays.
Jane: But, Bob, wouldn't you get bored with the same routine year after year teaching... teaching the same material to the children. And... a sense o! responsibility you need — all those children, all those parents.
Вob: Oh, look, it wouldn't be as boring as... as working in an office. Teaching is terribly stimulating. It's ... new every day — I'm sure I'd enjoy it.
Jane: But I mean, there's so much variety in office work! Look at my job: I'm dealing with people and their problems, there're new situations to cope with all the time.
Bob: Yes, that's quite true, but I think there's a number of differences between teaching and office work and, well, I think I'll go in for teaching because... it really attracts me.
(From J. Jones "Functions of English". Cam., 1981)
In the other gardens
And all up the vale,
From the autumn bonfires
See the smoke trail!
Pleasant summer over
And all the summer flowers,
The red fires blaze,
The grey smoke towers.
Sing a song of seasons!
Something bright in all!
Flowers in the summer,
Fires in the fall! (R. L. Stevenson)
ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY (II)
appreciate υ genuinely adv responsibility n
career n job n responsible adj
challenge n profession n vital adj
choice n reliable adj vocation n
educate υ respect υ work n, υ
to make/take a (careful) choice rewarding/stimulating work
to have no choice to be devoted to smth. or smb.
to be interested in to be responsible for smth.
to leave/finish school to take/accept responsibility
school leaver to have/need a sense of res-
to consider teaching (medicine, ponsibliliry
etc.) as a career to cope with smth.
to take up a carrer/a job to earn/enjoy gratitude
to go in for teaching and respect
to be in teaching (medicine, to have (no) respect for
banking, etc.) smb. or smth.
to be in/out of one's line love of smth./for smb.
Note: The nouns "work, job, profession, career, vocation" have more or less the same meaning. Nevertheless there is a certain diffеrence in their semantics and usage.
"Work" has the most general meaning and can be applied to anything one has to do in the way of making a living. "Job" is close to it in its meaning but tends to denote less prestigious work. Apart from that the word "job" can also denote a position in employment, in which case the difference between the words "work" and "job" is quite obvious (е.g. I'm very fond of шу job, even though it means doing a lot of work). "Profession" is work which requires advanced education and special training. Traditionally it's applied to law, medicine, architecture and military career. The word "career" itself means either a course of progress in the life of a person or has the same meaning as the word "work" and is mostly used when speaking of the choice of work. The word "vocation" means the kind of work to which a man is led by natural talents (compare with the word "calling"). It's a learned word and is seldom used in everyday speech.
Remember that thе word "work" in the meaning mentioned above is uncountable and shouldn't be used with the indefinite article or in the plural.
In contrast to it the word "job" is countable and can be used with the indefinite article.
I. a) Transcribe and learn to read the following words:
machines, appreciate, humanity, vital, challenge, individual, awareness, ignorance, fearful, boredom, medium, accept, routine, stimulating, variety.
b) Study Texts A and В and explain the meaning of the words and word combinations listed below:
think privately, the most vital job, a rewarding, job, a challenge to your character, an ignorant teacher, a guardian, the same routine, stimulating work, to go in for teaching
II. a) Write English equivalents of the following words and phrases. Use them in sentences of your own:
сделать выбор, иметь призвание (способности) к чему-л., интересоваться чем-то, подумать о профессии учителя, оценить, быть преданным своей работе, служить людям, жгучее стремление к знаниям, уважение к кому-л.
b) Find in Text A synonyms to the following words and word combinations:
to do well in smth., in fact, because, faithful, confess, gratifying, sincerely, knowledge, to ruin.
III. a) Enlarge upon the following topics:
1. After your parents your teacher may be the most important person in your life. 2. Teaching is not easy and a real challenge to your character, abilities and talent. 3. To be a good teacher you must be genuinely interested in what you are doing. 4. Teaching is a constant stream of decisions. 5. Every time you learn something new you become something new.
P r o m p t s: there's one more thing to be noted, moreover, what's more..., I might as well add that..., in addition, on top of that..., something else I'd like to say is..., talking of....
b) Comment on the quotation from John Steinbeck, say if you share his opinion. Do you also think that teaching equals art? Why do you think that! Find more quotations concerned with teachers and teaching, comment on them.
c) Continue the text on the part of the teacher. You may find the following ideas useful:
A good teacher is one who learns all the time, from life, from colleagues, from children; a professional teacher integrates theory and practice; this sort of work demands great patience; there are many skills necessary for good teaching.
d) Prepare a 3-minute talk on one of the great teachers of the past or today, give reasons for your choice.
IV. a) Act out the dialogue "Choosing is not so easy as it looks".
b) Role-play a talk between an intending teacher and a will-be journalist on differences and similarities of the careers they've chosen. Use Text В and Essential Vocabulary П.
V. Speak about:
1. possible change in the system of secondary education in Russia.
P r o m p t s: universal compulsory education, to extend the training course, to improve the educational process, to modernize programmes and manuals, to use up-to-date technical equipment, to provide optional training in various subjects.
2. an ideal school as you see it.
VI. Bead the jokes below. See how the verbs learn and study are used in the context. Consult a dictionary and find out the difference in their meaning and usage. Retell the jokes in indirect speech:
1. A young teacher just beginning his career asks advice of an older member of the faculty: "What have you learned in your years of experience?"
"I've learned one thing. Often you will find while you are giving a lesson in class that there is one young upstart who always disagrees with you. Tell me, would you stop him and try to make him shut up right then and there?"
"I suppose I would."
"Well, don't. He's probably the only one who is listening to you."
2. A high-school girl seated next to a famous astronomer at a dinner party struck up a conversation asking, "What do you do in life?"
He replied, "I study astronomy."
"Dear me," said the young miss, "I finished astronomy last year."
VII. Translate the sentences using the words learn and study in their different meanings:
1. В молодости он изучал химию в университете. 2. Дети легко учат иностранные языки. 3. Я очень огорчился, когда узнал, что не сдал экзамен. 4. Весь вечер он занимался в своей комнате. 5. Изучите эту информацию очень внимательно- она поможет вам сделать правильный выбор. 6. Моя сестра учится, чтобы стать юристом. 7. К сожалению, он так и не научился читать и писать. 8. Вам еще предстоит научиться, как справляться с трудными проблемами на уроках.
VIII. Comment on the given proverbs. Make np a situation centered round one of them:
1. Better unborn than untaught.
2. Like teacher, like pupil.
3. A little knowledge is a dangerous thing.
IX. a) Fill in prepositions and adverbs where necessary:
Гильдия лингвистов-экспертов по документационным и информационным спорам Общество любителей российской словесностиМонографияЯзыковой вкус интернет-эпохи в России (функционирование русского языка в Интернете: концептуально-сущностные доминанты): Монография. – М.: Изд-во РУДН, 2008.
- Г 421 Гершель, Джон. Философия естествознания: Об общем характере, пользе и принципах исследования природы : пер. с англ. / Гершель, Джон. - Изд. 2-е.