Поиск

Полнотекстовый поиск:
Где искать:
везде
только в названии
только в тексте
Выводить:
описание
слова в тексте
только заголовок

Рекомендуем ознакомиться

'Реферат'
Гидравлический привод, или гидропривод, получил широкое применение на строительных и дорожных машинах. В последнее время он используется на путевых м...полностью>>
'Заседание'
22-23 сентября 2011 года в г. Киеве (Украина) состоялось 25-е заседание Межправительственного совета по вопросам агропромышленного комплекса Содружес...полностью>>
'Методические рекомендации'
Вводная часть – должна быть краткой (не более 3-4 страниц) и должна быть написана так, чтобы вызвать интерес у потенциального инвестора. Необходимо че...полностью>>
'Автореферат'
ФОРМИРОВАНИЕ ПРОФЕССИОНАЛЬНОЙ КОМПЕТЕНТНОСТИ БУДУЩИХ СПЕЦИАЛИСТОВ В ОБЛАСТИ ВЫЧИСЛИТЕЛЬНОЙ ТЕХНИКИ НА ОСНОВЕ МОДУЛЬНО-ИНФОРМАЦИОННОЙ ТЕХНОЛОГИИ ОБУЧЕ...полностью>>

Науково-практичної інтернет-конференції економічна політика країн єс 17 жовтня 2011 р., Донецьк м. Донецьк 2011 р. Ббк 65. 050. 11 Е 40

Главная > Документ
Сохрани ссылку в одной из сетей:




MINISTRY OF EDUCATION, SCIENCE, YOUTH AND SPORTS OF UKRAINE

DONETSK NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF THE ECONOMICS AND TRADE

NAMED AFTER MYKHAYLO TUGAN-BARANOVSKY

THE ACADEMY OF HOTEL MANAGEMENT AND CATERING INDUSTRY

INTERNATIONAL

SCIENTIFIC AND PRACTICAL

INTERNET-CONFERENCE

EUROPEAN UNION ECONOMIC POLICY

17 October, 2011 Donetsk

CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS

Donetsk

2011

МІНІСТЕРСТВО ОСВІТИ І НАУКИ, МОЛОДІ ТА СПОРТУ УКРАЇНИ

ДОНЕЦЬКИЙ НАЦІОНАЛЬНИЙ УНІВЕРСИТЕТ ЕКОНОМІКИ І ТОРГІВЛІ

ІМЕНІ МИХАЙЛА ТУГАН-БАРАНОВСЬКОГО

АКАДЕМІЯ ГОТЕЛЬНОГО МЕНЕДЖМЕНТУ ТА ХАРЧУВАННЯ

МАТЕРІАЛИ

ІІІ МІЖНАРОДНОЇ

НАУКОВО-ПРАКТИЧНОЇ

ІНТЕРНЕТ-КОНФЕРЕНЦІЇ

ЕКОНОМІЧНА ПОЛІТИКА КРАЇН ЄС

17 жовтня 2011 р., Донецьк

м. Донецьк

2011 р.

ББК 65.050.11

Е 40

УДК 338.2

Е 40 Економічна політика країн ЄС : матер. міжнар. наук.-практ. конф., 17 жовт. 2011 р. м. Познань, Польша / М-во освіти і науки, молоді та спорту України, Донец. нац. ун-т економіки і торгівлі ім. М. Туган-Барановського, Акад.. готел. менедж. та харчування ; редкол. : Шубін О.О. (голов. ред..) [та ін.]. – Донецьк : [ДонНУЕТ], 2011. - 208 с.

Видається з 2009 р.

Редакційна колегія:

Шубін О.О., д-р екон. наук (голов. ред);

dr Roman Dawid Tauber, prof. WSHiG

Садєков А.А., д-р екон. наук (заст.

Голов. ред.);

dr Ewa Mucha-Szajek, prof. WSHiG

Азарян О.М., д-р екон. наук;

dr Elena Janina

Балабанова Л.В., д-р екон. наук;

prof., Dr.oec. Maija Šenfelde

Виноградова О.В., д-р екон. наук;

Горожанкіна М.Є. д-р екон. наук;

Фролова Л.В., д-р екон. наук;

Чернега О.Б., д-р екон. наук;

Самосьонок Л.М., канд. екон. наук;

Абрашка О. В., ас.

Адреса редакційної колегії збірника:

83050, м. Донецьк, вул. Щорса, 31

ББК 65.050.11

© Донецький національний університет

економіки і торгівлі імені Михайла

Туган-Барановського, 2011

© Академія готельного менеджменту та

харчування, 2011

Alberto Viñas

Escola Universitària Salesiana de Sarrià

EU’s Smart Specialization Strategies Platform - Smart Growth in Europe 2020

In reality, regions are the primary institutional partners for universities, research and education institutes as well as SMEs and, therefore, they constitute the key to R&D and innovation making them an indispensible part of the Europe 2020 strategy.

The issue of specialization in R&D and innovation is particularly crucial for regions and countries which do not present a leading history in any of the major scientific or technological sectors. The smart specialization strategies are quite promising in this process as their objective is to encourage complementary combining regional productive assets associated with relevant sectors in the economy.

The knowledge and innovation capacity of regions depends on many factors such as business culture, education and training institutions, innovation support services, technology transfer mechanisms, R&D and ICT infrastructure, business incubators, new sources of finance or even local creative potential.

With 86 billion euro allocated to these policy areas, Member States and regions are committed to support this European strategy in order to maximize the impact of Regional Policy by ensuring a more effective use of public funds and by stimulating private investment.

Smart specialization is a concept for the development of the R&D and innovation policy of the European Union. Its aim is to promote efficient and effective use of public investment using the right synergies among countries and regions and strengthening their innovation capacity. This way, regional diversity can be developed even in less competitive areas by boosting their economic growth and prosperity. The process involves key factors coming from governmental, business, academic and other research institutions.

The smart specialization strategy consists of a multi-annual strategy program aiming to develop a functional national or regional research innovation system. Based on an analysis of the regional assets and technological studies, a developed strategy foresees potential partnerships with other regions and countries, and at the same time avoiding any overlapping or fragmentation of efforts. The whole strategy is based on the concept of a strong partnership between private and public entities with the collaboration of academic and research institutions.

The platform aims to assist the regions of the EU Member States to develop and implement new specialized synergies. The most important point in the process is the identification of high value added activities which offer better chances for competitiveness and integration in the market.

Among others, the smart specialization platform will provide analysis, expertise, advice, research, practical technical support, and the necessary training for the development of the new strategy, as well as a comprehensive toolbox based on the relevant EU policy.

The platform will also carry out a number of tasks intended to facilitate the exchange of experience from all regional and national initiatives and to identify the potential of cross-border cooperation through joint investment opportunities in specific innovative sectors.

A crucial element of smart specialization strategies is the presence of clusters, geographic concentrations of companies, often SMEs, which interact with each other and with clients and suppliers and often share a pool of specialist labor, business and financial services.

A key driver to R&D and innovation is public procurement since it is able to provide innovative firms with speed up measures to integrate the market. Innovation Partnerships is a new legal model to be established in the European market.

Research infrastructure in knowledge based innovation systems needs to be developed in order to help regions realize their full potential. This approach could be supported by the establishment of networks, the development of Regional Partner Facilities and the creation of the necessary ICT and research infrastructure for this scope.

The combination of these various aspects creates a new dynamic that goes beyond the specific sectors they represent. The pervasive impact of these synergies confirm the central role Smart Specialization strategy can play in the world economy, the EU economy and the EU’s economic recovery. Its effect will become apparent at the economic structure of the industrial compositions not only in advanced but also in emerging economies. The competitive asset of R&D and innovation will be fundamental as it is able to influence other sectors of the economy and develop key technologies on a global scale.

References:

  1. Attorney, Law Firm Directory. [Electron resource]. – Access mode:/article.asp?id=22376

  2. Information Technology and Innovation Foundation. [Electron resource]. – Access mode:http:

Elena Janina, dr

The Academy of Hotel Management and Catering Industry

TRENDS IN INTERNATIONAL LABOUR MIGRATION

Nowadays process of international labour migration evolves constantly. It is stimulated consolidation of world concord, formation of global space, influence of global factors and pre-conditions. Conformities to law development of international labour migration obtain word character, determining the tendencies of intensification of migration flows and feature of migration relations of separate countries. In this time in comparing to the previous periods of history, importance of factors of military-political expansion and geographical openings reduced. Disintegration of the colonial and socialistic systems was given by a shove globalization of world labour market. Distribution of democracy as basic principle of the political and global system, and also forming of the global system of defence of rights and freedoms of human, resulted in bringing in the sphere of international labour migration of all world population. In establishment of conformities to law of development of international labour migration, it follows to take into account hierarchical differentiation of global factors among which primary and determining (that result in genesis of streams) demographic and economic. They are characterized as basic and permanent. Other factors (natural, social, civilization, informative, political and others) complement influence of main determinant and often touch separate parts of global space. Main pre-condition of increase of volumes of international labour migration is growth of quantity of population of Earth which is confirmed the results of global censuses.

According to experts of UN the quantity of population of the world will stably grow in future. Thus an unevenness will be saved between countries with the different level of economic development. Annual growth of population rates in developing countries on average in 6 times higher than in developed [1]. In obedience to the prognoses of UN part of population in age 60 and more in the world will be substantially increased: in 1950 – 8%, in 2009 – 11%, in 2050 – 22% [2]. The accelerations of processes of senescence of population in combination with reduction of birth-rate form new calls for the developed countries of the world.

From data of international organizations [4; 5] the world volume of labour resources in 2030 grows from 3 milliards persons to 4 milliards. The increase of labour resources after the different groups of countries goes unevenly. Growth of volume of labour resources in countries which develop in 2025 will exceed their general amount in the developed countries. In 2050 to labour resources in more developed countries are estimated in 600 billions persons, while in less developed they will be increased from 2,4 billions s in 2005 to 3 billions in 2020 and 3,6 billions in 2040. The demographic unbalanced is observed and in the change of structure of population, especially in relation to the increase of quantity of young people. In 2010 the general quantity of young people (15-24) in the world made 1218070 thousands persons, including more developed countries - 158571 thousand; the less developed regions - 1059499 thousands; the least the developed countries - 172779 thousands [4]. The median age in countries with very high (39.8 years in 2010) and high (30.4 years) level of human development significantly higher than in middle (28.6 years) and low (19.6 years ) level of development of human capability [4]. This global trend is the worsening situation of youth, which is typical for more and for less developed countries. While universal trends increase the general level of education in all countries there is low Youth Employment. According to [4], in middle and low human development there is a higher level of gender inequality, poverty, high intensity of deprivation (in education, health and living standards). For example, the national poverty line in 2000-2008 was in Slovakia amounted to 16.8%, Poland - 14.8%, Ukraine - 19.5%, Turkey - 27.0%, Romania - 28.9%, Mexico - 47.0% [4]. For countries with medium and low human development is characterized numerous human rights abuses, the growing number of victims of corruption, environmental degradation and access to services, increasing the population affected by natural disasters. For example, in the years 2000-2009 (average per year) to1 million people in Norway from natural disasters affected 49 people, USA - 7322, Sweden - 4, Finland - 8, Peru - 18032, Ukraine - 1561, Macedonia - 60,392, India - 55557, Kenya - 94526 etc. [4]. The high prevalence of malnutrition and deprivation relative intensity of food in some countries (Philippines, Indonesia, Syria, India and others.) Activity leads to internal migration, as well as in almost all countries to increase amount of refugees (for example, in 2008 Turkey - 214.4 thousand, Colombia - 373.5 thousand, China - 175.2 thousand, Vietnam - 328.2 thousand people, Afghanistan - 2,833.1 persons ) [4]. In countries with very high and high human development observed higher proportion of people satisfied with personal well-being (work, personal health, quality of life). In countries with medium and low human development level of this index significantly lower, and often observed negative feature of social environment (respectful attitude, social support network, etc.). Relevant trends observed in terms of crime and safety, satisfaction measures for the welfare of (affordable housing, quality health care, education system, air and water quality) [4].

Thus, there are objective demographic impulses facilitate international migration, expression of which depends on the panorama of economic development of countries and regions, structural changes in commercial complexes and international relations.

References

  1. Global Commission on International [Electron resource]. – Аccess mode: </en/>.

  2. World Population Ageing 2009 [Electron resource]. – Аccess mode: </esa/population/publications/worldageing19502050/>.

  3. International Organization for Migration [Electron resource]. – Аccess mode: <t/jahia/Jahia/about-migration/lang/en>.

  4. International Labour Organization [Electron resource]. – Аccess mode: </>.

  5. United Nations World Youth Report: Youth and Climate [Electron resource]. – Аccess mode: </esa/socdev/unyin/wyr10.htm>.

Ivanenko I.A., PhD

DonNUET

named after Michailo Tugan-Baranovskiy

COMMON AGRICULTURAL POLICY FINANCING

Summary. The Common Agricultural Policy financing mechanism is examined. Budget payments on agriculture and rural development are analyzed. Prospects of the CAP reformation are founded.

Agriculture sat high on the agenda of European policymakers, especially at the time when the Treaty of Rome was being negotiated. The memory of post-war food shortages was still vivid and thus agriculture keeps staying a key element of the EU policies.

For almost 50 years the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) has been the European Union's most important common policy. This explains why traditionally it has consumed a large part of the EU's budget, although the percentage has steadily declined over recent years [1].

The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is comprised of a set of rules and mechanisms, which regulate the production, trade and processing of agricultural products in the European Union (EU), with attention being focused increasingly on rural development. The CAP is made up of two “Pillars”: Pillar 1: market support measures and direct subsidies to EU producers; Pillar 2: rural development programmes.

The legal bases the CAP were set down by the Article 40 of the European Economic Community Treaty which declared that one or several agricultural guidance and guarantee funds should be created to enable the common organisation of agricultural markets to fulfil its goals. On January 14, 1962 during the first agricultural marathon, the European Council opted for the creation of one single fund to finance all European Community market and structural expenditure in the various agricultural sectors: the European Agricultural Guidance and Guarantee Fund (EAGGF). The arrangements on CAP financing were finalised only in 1970 [2].

The reform of the common agricultural policy in June 2003 and April 2004 introduced major changes having a significant impact on the economy of rural territories of the EU in terms of agricultural production patterns, land management methods, employment and the wider social and economic conditions in the various rural areas. Consequently, the EAGGF was abolished and two European agricultural funds were created in 2005 (Regulation 1290/2005): namely the European Agricultural Guarantee Fund (EAGF) and the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development (EAFRD) [2].

Now the expenditure for agriculture and rural development is financed by two funds, which form part of the EU's general budget: the EAGF finances direct payments to farmers and measures to regulate agricultural markets such as intervention and export refunds, while the EAFRD finances the rural development programmes of the Member States [1].

EU 2011 budget (title 5, pp. II/229-304) provides common financial revenues for agriculture and rural development at 57,292 bn. EUR.

Table

General summary of payments on agriculture and rural development in 2009-2011*, million EUR [3, p. 229]

Chap-ter

Heading

2009

2010

2011

Growth rate (2011 to 2009)

1

Administrative expenditure of the ‘Agriculture and Rural Development’ policy area

129,70

133,38

133,43

102,87%

2

Interventions in agricultural markets

7005,78

4100,53

2966,74

42,35%

3

Direct aids

39113,92

39273,0

39771,1

101,68%

4

Rural development

8737,93

13396,5

12558,16

143,72%

5

Pre-accession measures in the field of agriculture and rural development

254,10

131,5

71,32

28,07%

6

International aspects of the ‘Agriculture and Rural Development’ policy area

5,58

6,28

6,06

108,47%

7

Audit of agricultural expenditure

–73,21

–300,50

–262,50

358,54%

8

Policy strategy and coordination of the ‘Agriculture and Rural Development’ policy area

40,18

36,27

24,70

61,47%

Reserves

0

300,27

0,07

 

Total

55213,99

57077,23

55269,08

100,10%

*2009 – outturn payments, 2010, 2011 - appropriation

The table shows insufficient total changes in CAP financing in 2011 comparing 2009 (+0,1%) while payment structure will transform: to rural development payments increasing (+43,7%) both pre-accession measures and interventions in agricultural markets costs will decrease (-72% and -57,6% accordingly).

The CAP budget for 2010 is 43,8 bn. EUR (31% of the EU budget and 6,4% more than in 2009). For 2011 the CAP budget has been reduced by 3% [4].

The CAP is due to be renewed in 2013 (this will include a review of the Single Payment Scheme). There is speculation that reforms could shift spending from the CAP towards innovation, climate and energy. Recent proposals have also included an income insurance scheme for farmers, with 2/3 of farmers' earnings now provided by direct payments from the CAP [4]. CAP reformation supposes insufficient revenues reduction up to 2013 (see the pic.).

Bn. EUR

Pic. Commission’s proposed expenditure for Pillars 1 and 2

in 2007-2013, bn. EUR [5, p. 13]

The CAP is funded by taxpayers from the EU Member States as part of each government’s contribution to the EU budget. Almost half the EU budget is spent on the CAP while 5.2% of the EU work force is employed in agriculture. Several attempts have been made to reform the CAP. However, there has been only limited success in reducing its cost. It has been a cause of controversy not only because of its huge cost as a proportion of the EU budget, but also because it is seen as an unfair way of protecting European agriculture from overseas competition when farming contributes relatively little to EU GDP [4].

Conclusion. Prospects of the CAP further promotion are conditioned by its utility for European society and ability to meet challenges of the time. As the CAP is more effective and desirable than national or regional policies it applying is appropriate. Besides that the policy is essential in the sphere of food safety of the Europeans. The most directions of CAP reformation must touch provision of a safe, healthy food, keeping transparent and affordable prices, sustainable land using, concerning water, soil and air quality, rural communities sustaining, etc. In the context of foreign trade development the CAP should be reformed the way to account increasing global demand, strengthen the competitiveness from other countries, further trade liberalization.

References:

  1. Financing the CAP / European Commission official site [Electronic source] – Access regime: http://ec.europa.eu/agriculture/fin/index_en.htm

  2. Nicholas Moussis. Access to European Union: law, economics, policies. - 2009. Rixensart, Belgium. - 556 p.

  3. Budget of the European Union. Section III COMMISSION / Official Journal of the European Union. - 15.3.2011. – Brussels. – 2011. – 1227 p.

  4. Knott A., James W. Common Agricultural Policy / CIVITAS Institute for the Study of Civil Society 2007 [Electronic source] – Access regime: .uk/eufacts/FSPOL/AG3.htm

  5. The Future Financing of the Common Agricultural Policy: 2nd Report of Session 2005-06. - London : The Stationery Office Limited. – 2005. - 57 p.

Maija Šenfelde, prof., Dr.oec.

Riga Technical University



Скачать документ

Похожие документы:

  1. Освітні інновації в національному університеті водного господарства та природокористування каталог Європейська кредитно-трансферна система Рівне 2011

    Документ
    О-72 Освітні інновації в НУВГП: каталог /Уклад. С.М.Гончаров, С.Я.Зубілевич, Т.А.Костюкова; відповідальний редактор С.М.Гончаров. – Рівне: НУВГП, 2011.
  2. Міністерство України у справах сім’ї, молоді та спорту становище сімей в україні

    Документ
    Керівник авторського колективу – А.Ю. Тарановська; авторський колектив: І.О. Курило, доктор екон. наук, К.Б. Левченко, доктор юр. наук, професор, К.П.
  3. Містобудівної реконструкції

    Документ
    П 69 Практика містобудівної реконструкції (2006 – 2011 рр.) : бібліогр. покажчик / Харк. нац. акад. міськ. госп-ва ; уклад. О. Ф. Сергієнко, наук. ред.

Другие похожие документы..