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«ИННОВАЦИОННОЕ РАЗВИТИЕ И РАЗВИТИЕ ИННОВАЦИИ»

INNOVATIVE DEVELOPMENT AND DEVELOPING INNOVATIONS

Сборник статей ежегодной международной студенческой научно-практической конференции

ISBN 978-5-7890-0605-4

Ростов-на-Дону

2011

МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ И НАУКИ РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРАЦИИ

ГОСУДАРСТВЕННОЕ ОБРАЗОВАТЕЛЬНОЕ УЧРЕЖДЕНИЕ ВЫСШЕГО ПРОФЕССИОНАЛЬНОГО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ

«ДОНСКОЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ»

«ИННОВАЦИОННОЕ РАЗВИТИЕ И РАЗВИТИЕ ИННОВАЦИИ»

INNOVATIVE DEVELOPMENT AND DEVELOPING INNOVATIONS

Сборник статей ежегодной международной студенческой научно-практической конференции

Ростов-на-Дону

2011

УДК [33+338.48+72]:001.895(06)

Печатается по решению ученого совета факультета «Международный»

Инновационное развитие и развитие инноваций. Материалы ежегодной международной студенческой научно-практической конференции – Ростов-на-Дону: издательский центр ДГТУ, 2011 г.

Настоящий сборник представляет собой материалы ежегодной международной студенческой научно-практической конференции «Инновационное развитие и развитие инноваций». В сборник вошли труды по следующим научным направлениям: модернизация посткризисной экономики, корпоративная культура в условиях глобализации, реклама и маркетинг, инновационные PR-сценарии и PR-технологии, перспективы развития индустрии туризма, прикладная филология, поликультурное и межкультурное образовательное пространство, инновационное развитие технических и естественных наук, инновационная архитектура.

Сборник предназначен для широкого круга студентов высших и средних учебных заведений, а также всех интересующихся проблемами, рассматриваемыми в рамках конференции.

Редакционная коллегия: Лукьянов А. Д. – и.о. проректора по научно-исследовательской работе и инновационной деятельности; Муругова Е. В. – заведующая кафедрой «Мировые языки и культуры»; Сухорукова А. Н. – зам.зав.кафедрой «Мировые языки и культуры» по научной работе со студентами.

©ДГТУ

©Издательский центр ДГТУ, 2011

Алексеева Мария Алексеевна, Пузанова Марина Владимировна

Don State Technical University

ANTI-CRISES PROGRAMS OF THE MOSTYLE="POWERFUL COUNTRIES

My article is about anti-crises programs of the most powerful countries. I suppose that this topic is rather actual and interesting, because the world economy crises was the tragedy for the whole world. Each country felt the scale oh this crises. And what’s more this crises could demonstrate the weak points of many countries. In my article I presented the anti-crises programms of some countries, which helped to avoid the most severe consequences.

Key words: USA, Japan ,Russia, China, taxes, GDP, dollar, yen, yuan, banking sector, social protection, damage, monetary policy authorities.

The world ecomomy chrises has become a plague of XXI centure that shoсked all countries in the world. A lot of people argued about it, going through this process wih a find comb the main reasons of its beginnings. In this article I want to pay your attention to such activities as anti - crises programs which were demonstrated by the world states , but before speaking about each country individually, let’s imagine the situation in the whole. tarting in January of this year when the global crisis has already gained a strong enough movement, and everyone began to react in different ways, most countries began to build its policy, relying only on themselves, and ignoring those around them. Many, of course except the U.S.,had a negative attitude to the program of quantitative easing monetary policy, but gradually had to join these programs, and more precise to say to develop their personal, even the ECB. But first things first.

USA

The first step was made by acting president of the USA - B. Obama. He first began a large-scale program of economic assistance, which in his view should have been the first to withdraw the U.S. from the "cesspool" of the global crisis.

We note its main points. The main thing was put emphasis in this program, this action is aimed at reducing unemployment in the shortest time, and soon the revitalization of economic growth. The plan included two main components: tax cuts, reduce cost of large-scale investments in the economy.

The first forces were thrown on to help the needy. Actions aimed at are increasing the duration of unemployment benefits, funding for retraining and unemployment, the increase in funding for health insurance, increased food aid to the needy, as well as housing for the homeless have been highlighted during program execution.

Turning to taxes in this program, I want to draw attention to reducing business taxes, tax cuts for individuals. In a new tax program to stimulate the economy, it’s included an item on the additional tax credit of $ 1 thousand dollars for families and $ 500 for individual taxpayers. As in the future we could see all this beneficial to the data in terms of sales of houses, applications for unemployment benefits, increasing consumer confidence and, of course, the U.S. GDP. The banking sector has also not been left without attention, on what was allocated tens of billions of dollars.

Japan

Initial anti-crisis program included the following items: improved market conditions, improvements in living standards, financial development. It's simple and concise. The only thing that kept Japan, is a very fast growing rate of the yen, which is only in the recent time, began to stabilize at around 100 yen against the U.S. dollar. In April, Japan announced a new anti-crisis program and contributed to its embodiment of the package volume of 15 trillion. yen. Were also corrected the main directions of anti-crisis program, which included tax cuts, provide emergency funds to sustain jobs and support the unemployed.

There was the most severe earthquake in the last 140 years In Japan, Tsunami swept along the eastern coast of Japan, washing away everything in its path: hundreds of children, car washes into a powerful water flow. Strange phenomenon occurred in the ocean off the coast of Japan: there is formed a huge crater and a whirlpool.

The earthquake in Japan had destroyed a lot of industrial facilities, including nuclear.

Everything that is happening now in Japan, like doomsday. People were in panic, tremors are continuing, everywhere people were screaming for help. Japanese authorities are all the forces trying to protect its citizens and has made an appeal for assistance to other countries.

Some witnesses asociated the earthquake and tsunami in Japan with the end of the world, others to the fact that the sea takes revenge on people for the harm that it had been caused humanity, in particular for the killing of whales. There is a version on which this natural disaster associated with lunar events that are still expected to land in March 2011. In any case, what was happening in Japan, is beyond description. At the moment, officially listed 31 people dead and hundreds have already listed as missing. Unfortunately, such tragedy will not be limited even hundreds of deaths.

The economic costs of disasters in Japan can make from 190 to 310 billion dollars.

Damage to Japanese businesses

Toyota Motor, Honda, Nissan: suspended at all factories

Sony: 8 enterprises don’t work; Toshiba: shut down the plant; Panasonic: fracture at 2 plants

Mitsubishi Chemical, Maruzen Petrochemical, Kyokuto Petroleum - did not work is underway at the refinery

Mitsubishi Material, Pan Pacific Copper - due to lack of electricity halted the production of copper, Sumitomo Metal Industries - stopped working steel plant, Nippon Steel Corp - a plant for production of steel is closed, the remaining gas back

China.

What can I say about this mysterious country, so this is what someone would be spared a crisis, but for China, this problem seems to be not a problem in itself. China's anti-crisis programms consist of stimulating domestic demand, and strangely enough increase in domestic consumption from month to month speaks for itself. GDP at the beginning of the crisis has slowed to 6.3%, but then continued its growth.. In order to fight the crisis of China it was spent $ 4 trillion. yuan, which is about 586 billion U.S. dollars, and not exclude the need for additional injections into the economy. Large reduction in Chinese exports has also been noted and all the programs were devoted to its increase.

Recall that China is the largest "glass jar", which focused U.S. dollars, although the internal politics of China carries out the program of gradual of deviation from the "green pieces of paper, at least for the example calculations with Japan in local currency.

Russia

By itself, the Russian crisis program impressively large scale. I want to focus your attention to its main points. Social protection, social security, protection of old jobs and creating new ones, maintaining the industrial and technological potential of the economy - these are measures which are included in the first echelon.There are a lot of activities to improve domestic demand in different directions and cut down the administrative barriers to business .

As we can see now for it is necessary to find domestic sources of growth. Implementation of anti-crisis measures will be achieved through structural renewal of the economy, leading to a decrease dependence the production and the financial system on the export of fuel and raw products.

The Government also provided additional funding and support for individual industries, aiming at preventing irreversible crisis impacts associated with a decrease in production, restructuring, bankruptcy. In the housing sector to support mortgage borrowers. Creating new jobs and transparent regulation of tax deductions to the state associated with reduced administrative burden on business.

Conclusions

And to sum it up I should add that the world economy crisis was a tragedy for each country which can paralyze the ecopnomical situation in many countries. But the authorities of the countries tried to stabilize the national economy oh their countries. The have a lot of diffrent measures for its protection. And as we can see the economy is not so simple as it seems at first sight, it’s a complicated system of many diffrent mechanisms. And sometimes it’s impossible to predict its development.

Literature

Балкунова Наталья Александровна

Барбарова Ирина Игоревна

Rostov State Economic University, Russia

EL INTERNET Y LAS REDES SOCIALES

Today’s life rhythm needs something quick to serve as the resource of information, communication and mass-media. Nowadays the traditional mass communication media such as television, radio and newspapers is replaced by the Internet. From this report you can learn the information about the Internet, which is a public, cooperative, and self-sustaining facility accessible to hundreds of millions of people worldwide and the most popular social networks and mass-media resources.

Key words: Internet, social network, interactivity, source of information, communication, web page, social impact, pop culture, Facebook, YouTube.

Internet es, sin lugar a dudas, la fuente de información preferida por delante de la televisión, los periódicos y la radio, que tiene un impacto profundo en el mundo laboral, el ocio y el conocimiento a nivel mundial. Gracias a la web, millones de personas tienen acceso fácil e inmediato a una cantidad extensa y diversa de información en línea.

Desde una perspectiva cultural del conocimiento, Internet ha sido una ventaja y una responsabilidad. Para la gente que está interesada en otras culturas, la red de redes proporciona una cantidad significativa de información y de una interactividad que sería inasequible de otra manera.

Internet entró como una herramienta de globalización, poniendo fin al aislamiento de culturas. Debido a su rápida masificación e incorporación en la vida del ser humano, el espacio virtual es actualizado constantemente de información, fidedigna o irrelevante.

Internet es en la actualidad no sólo el elemento dominante y más dinámico en el área de los nuevos medios, sino también el elemento más amplio en sus impactos sociopolíticos, culturales y económicos.

Inicialmente el Internet tenía un objetivo claro. Se navegaba en Internet para algo muy concreto: búsquedas de información, generalmente. Ahora quizás también, pero sin duda alguna hoy es más probable perderse en la red, debido al inmenso abanico de posibilidades que brinda. Hoy en día, la sensación que produce Internet es un ruido, una serie de interferencias, una explosión de ideas distintas, de personas diferentes, de pensamientos distintos de tantas posibilidades que, en ocasiones, puede resultar excesivo. El crecimiento o más bien la incorporación de tantas personas a la red hace que las calles de lo que en principio era una pequeña ciudad llamada Internet se conviertan en todo un planeta extremadamente conectado entre sí entre todos sus miembros. El hecho de que Internet haya aumentado tanto implica una mayor cantidad de relaciones virtuales entre personas. es posible concluir que cuando una persona tenga una necesidad de conocimiento no escrito en libros, puede recurrir a una fuente más acorde a su necesidad.

Como medio de información Internet sustituye a revistas, libros, bibliotecas y archivos por páginas web (incluida función de "bajarse o descargar cosas"), bancos de datos, museos virtuales etc., convirtiéndose de forma múltiple en objetivo de la planificación de rutas, de información sobre viajes, consulta de predicción del tiempo, consulta del calendario de eventos, servicio de léxicos, etc.

Como medio de diversión Internet sustituye - en primer lugar sólo parcialmente - a revistas, radio, TV, juegos de sociedad y eventos públicos, satisfaciendo las necesidades de entretenimiento, juego y sociabilidad, en la medida en que pone al servicio del usuario textos, música e imágenes, sino también ofreciendo grandes ofertas y muy diferenciadas sobre juegos de ordenador interactivos, por una parte, y por la otra, chatrooms - "foros de chat".

El fenómeno de las redes sociales llegó para quedarse. Diariamente miles de personas se unen a estos sitios de convivencia virtual, que lo mismo sirven para intercambiar simples mensajes con el compañero de oficina, que para enlazar a parientes, reencontrarse con viejas amistades o encontrar pareja.

Las redes sociales son lo que nos permite hoy en día no tener una excusa para dejar de ver a nuestros amigos, familiares o conocidos, sin embargo más que para entretenimiento y socialización las redes sociales hoy en día sirven para hacer negocios, posicionamiento web y promoción de personalidades públicas o servicios.

Puesto Nº 1 YouTube: Ser famoso ya!

Tal vez el título sea un poco exagerado, pero en realidad se puede decir que cualquier persona puede ser famosa subiendo un video suyo en YouTube, la red social más potente que existe. YouTube ha tenido un gran impacto en la cultura popular. El sitio se convirtió en un medio de difusión tan popular para la difusión de fenómenos de Internet de todo tipo que incluso ha sido utilizado por importantes personalidades como artistas y políticos.

Puesto Nº 2 Facebook: Comunícate con las personas que más quieres

Es un sitio web de redes sociales donde los usuarios pueden participar en una o más redes sociales, en relación con su situación académica, su lugar de trabajo o región geográfica. Hoy en día ¿quién no tiene un perfil en Facebook?. Sin duda Facebook es la red social que más atrae usuarios, ya que famosos, empresas y personas en general usan este servicio incluso para promocionar sitios y demás.

Puesto Nº 3 Twitter: Dilo en 140 caracteres

Qué está pasando, es la nueva pregunta de esta red social, que en apenas unos años pasó de ser un servicio invisible a ser usado casi por cualquier persona. Twitter es el servicio que te permite expresar en tan sólo 140 palabras tu estado actual, tal vez esto es lo que más ha gustado a sus usuarios, la capacidad de ver al instante que es lo que están haciendo otras personas.

Puesto Nº 4: Yahoo Respuestas: Pregunta, responde y descubre

Siempre que hacemos una consulta en cualquier buscador uno de los primeros resultados los tiene la Wikipedia, una enciclopedia libre y políglota. Sus más de 17 millones de artículos en 278 idiomas y dialectos han sido redactados conjuntamente por voluntarios de todo el mundo, y prácticamente cualquier persona con acceso al proyecto puede editarlos. Otro servicio, Yahoo Answers permite hacer cualquier tipo de preguntas, según su categoría y cualquier otro usuario puede responder esta pregunta y así mismo otros pueden calificar y elegir la mejor respuesta. Es sin duda la alternativa a Wikipedia más informal que hay hoy en el mercado de servicios web o redes sociales.

Puesto Nº 5: MySpace

Una de las redes sociales con más éxito por la capacidad de compartir música, fotos videos y personalizar a fondo nuestro perfil. Gracias a su enorme popularidad y al gran número de posibilidades que el servicio ofrece, muchos renombrados artistas, famosos y estrellas de enorme fama internacional de todo tipo, tales como músicos, actores, directores de cine, presentadores, modelos y deportistas.

Puesto Nº 6: Tuenti

Tuenti es una plataforma social privada que está enfocada a la población española y a la que se accede únicamente por invitación. Cada día la usan millones de personas para comunicarse entre ellas y compartir información. Permite al usuario crear su propio perfil, subir fotos y vídeos y contactar con amigos. Tiene otras muchas posibilidades como crear eventos, Tuenti Sitios y Tuenti Páginas, etiquetar amigos en fotos, comentar sus estados, crear su propio espacio personal, chatear a través de su propio chat.

Puesto Nº 7: Taringa!

Taringa! es un sitio de entretenimiento por el cual los usuarios registrados comparten noticias, información, vídeos y enlaces por medio de posts, los cuales permiten comentarios de otros usuarios así como también la puntuación de los mismos por medio de un sistema de calificaciones que le permite a cada usuario registrado, de acuerdo a su rango, entregar una determinada cantidad de puntos por día. Taringa! se basa principalmente en la ayuda entre usuarios, por lo cual se convirtió en una comunidad muy famosa, que crece rápidamente.

En la sociedad de hoy, en la que las cosas van sustancialmente más rápido que hace años, las nuevas formas de comunicación permiten la relación entre personas y Internet con sus redes sociales es más importante y influyente de todas.

Bibliografía

  1. Maximiano Cortés Moreno. Guía de usos y costumbres de España. – Madrid: Edelsa, 2009. – p. 192.

Бен Реддад Камиль

Rostov State Technical University, Morocco

La connaissance des langues étrangères est nécessaire pour spécialiste

du XXI-ème siècle

Linguistic competencies give people advantages in the professional sphere and communication. Knowledge of foreign languages makes people more independent, helps them to adapt to new environment and provides success in many spheres.

Key words : language knowledge, professional needs, communication, development, independence, adaptation, curiosity.

Avant d’entamer la problématique: «la connaissance des langues étrangères est nécessaire pour spécialiste du XXI-ème siècle», je souhaiterais tout d’abord répondre à la question, qu’est-ce qu’une langue étrangère?  Une langue étrangère est une  qui n'est pas la langue maternelle d'une personne, si bien qu'elle doit en faire l'apprentissage pour pouvoir la maîtriser. Ceci peut se faire de différentes manières: par la voie , par des , des  ou des  à l'âge , par des manuels ou des méthodes multimédia, par le bain linguistique etc.

Le niveau en langues étrangères est un des critères de recrutement dans les entreprises notamment à vocation internationale, où un  des employés est nécessaire.

Dans le monde il y a toujours un leader et des suiveurs, les Etats-Unis d’Amérique sont une puissance mondiale, tant qu’ils le resteront, l'anglais est - et restera - une langue internationale, toutefois avoir comme deuxième langue l’anglais pour les non natifs peut être insidieux de la part des anglophones. L’usage international aujourd’hui de la langue impose à quiconque non anglophone, de connaitre au moins deux langues, si ce n’est trois ou plus. D’après plusieurs  témoignages et expériences de voyageurs, d’étudiants, de professeurs, j’ai pu sélectionner les meilleurs arguments en faveur de l’apprentissage d’une langue étrangère : 

1. Les compétences linguistiques sont une source d’opportunités professionnelles et une condition pour des relations internationales réussies.

2. Parler une langue étrangère, c’est gagner de l’indépendance, apprendre à s’adapter, se forger des opinions. De quoi faire face avec confiance à tout nouveau défi.

De nos jours l’apprentissage des langues étrangères est devenu chose vitale. Il va sans dire que celui qui ne parle qu’une seule langue est dit analphabète. Le tourisme, qui joue un rôle économique important, nécessite la connaissance de plusieurs langues étrangères pour pouvoir communiquer avec ces millions de touristes qui se déplacent en grand nombre d’un pays à l’autre. Ajoutons à cela, une autre catégorie de travailleurs émigrés à l’étranger afin de travailler, ce qui laisse dire que s’intégrer dans ce monde-là fait appel à un parfait apprentissage des
langues étrangères. En outre, la connaissance des ces langues est une clef de réussite pour les hommes et femmes d’affaires vers les différents pays pour traiter
des affaires commerciales. On connaît bien sûr l'importance des langues dans l'apprentissage scolaire: non seulement il est nécessaire, quelles que soient les études, de connaître une langue, et parfois plusieurs, mais encore celles-ci servent souvent de critère majeur d'évaluation. Il n'y a guère longtemps, le rôle sélectif attribué aujourd'hui aux mathématiques était dévolu au latin: outre les connaissances culturelles, on voyait en l'apprentissage de cette langue un mode de formation logique, du fait de la rigueur de sa grammaire. Mais si l'intérêt des langues se limitait à la réussite scolaire, convenons qu'il serait bien limité! C'est dans la vie professionnelle que les langues sont devenues presque indispensables : sans parler des métiers qui sont en contact direct et journalier avec une langue étrangère, il est maintenant impensable de devenir journaliste, commercial, voir secrétaire – puisque de plus en plus sont bilingues ou trilingues, sans maîtriser au moins l'anglais. La connaissance d'une langue apparaît alors à la fois comme un critère d'embauche – dans une société à fort taux de chômage, surtout pour les jeunes, et comme une possibilité, sinon une garantie, de progresser dans son métier.

La médecine a toujours fascinée, mais plusieurs Bacheliers voient leur rêve se réduire en miette vu les difficultés, qu’ils trouvent à intégrer la faculté qui se trouve dans leur pays d’origine (manque de place, échec aux examens d’entrée…). Pour ces étudiants, une seule porte reste ouverte, la porte de l’étranger. Cependant, quitter son pays de citoyenneté pour aller s'installer dans un autre pays est une démarche compliquée. Par conséquent, une préparation soignée s'impose pour pouvoir profiter pleinement de cette expérience. L’une des choses les plus primordiales est LA LANGUE, la langue n’est pas seulement un outil afin de poursuivre ses études, plusieurs personnes restent focalisé sur leur spécialité en l’occurrence un étudiant qui veut étudier dans un pays étranger ne va s’intéresser qu’aux termes qui se rapportent à son domaine, ce dernier ne pense pas aux opportunités qu’il pourrait avoir à la suite de l’obtention de son diplôme, il peut choisir un autre pays afin de s’approfondir plus dans ses recherches, trouver un poste dans son pays natale, ou saisir une opportunité en or qui lancera sa carrière. Connaitre un langue étrangère surtout dans le domaine médicale rapproche plus le patient et son médecin, car il est dans le devoir d’un médecin qui a juré fidélité a la science d’aider et de faire tout son possible pour abréger les souffrances du malade peut importe sa nationalité ou sa religion. Car avant tout la médecine est une science, dont l’objet est à la fois l’étude du corps humain et son fonctionnement, ainsi que la conservation et le rétablissement de la santé. Précisément dans les cas où le patient peut exprimer sa douleur, si le dit médecin ne peut pas communiquer avec ses patients toutes ses études n’auront servi à rien, c’est vrai qu’il faut exercer plusieurs années dans un pays avant de connaitre parfaitement sa langue mais grâce à la poussée technologique (internet, télévision, radio,…) cela devient de plus en plus facile de s’exercer. La modernisation que connait le monde actuelle et les avancées technologiques contribues nettement dans la recherche médicale, qui elle vise à mieux comprendre le corps humains et ses maladies.

Ne négligeant pas le faite que tous les pays n’ont pas le même niveau de recherche certains sont plus avancés que d’autres, se qui fait que le partage des découvertes ainsi que toutes les informations ou bases de données seront exprimés dans la langue officielle du pays. Le choix de la profession « médecin » implique de grandes responsabilités par conséquent améliorer ses techniques et connaissances et une chose primordiale, de se faite assister a des conférences, des séminaires devient une obligation. Ces derniers peuvent être menées dans des pays étrangers tels que la France, la Belgique, les États-Unis ou la Russie qui sont connues pour leurs suprématies incontestées dans le domaine médicale et tout se qui s’y rapporte, les personnes ne maitrisant pas le moyen de compréhension et de communication qui n’est autre que la langue font appel à des interprètes ou des traducteurs. Mais dans ce cas ils se mettent dans une position désavantageuse. Ils ne peuvent pas suivre les conversations en aparté, sans oublier que l'utilisation d'un interprète ralenti et défavorise les négociations.

En guise de conclusion, je souhaiterai mettre l’accent sur une grave faute que commettent les anglophones, ces derniers ne se soucient pas beaucoup d'apprendre une autre langue par ce qu'ils considèrent que la majorité de leurs interlocuteurs, et en particulier les jeunes, parlent l'anglais.

En outre, dans les rapports sociaux après le travail, les autochtones sont bien plus à l'aise pour parler dans leur langue plutôt qu'en anglais.

Donc que ce soit pour satisfaire votre curiosité intellectuelle, vos aspirations personnelles, pour des raisons sentimentales, où quelque raison que ce soit Il y a toujours une bonne raison pour apprendre une nouvelle langue. Toute langue étrangère est l’occasion d’enrichissement, savoir deux langues c’est être homme deux fois.

La littérature à consulter 

Брусникина Ксения Владимировна

Don State Technical University, Russia

DIE NEUE WELTWEITE WÄHRUNG ALS FAKTOR DER STABILISIERUNG DES WELTWEITEN FINANZSYSTEMS

The article deals with considering the foundation of the new world currency, choosing the best variant for stabilization of world finance system and analyzing all possibilities of implication of new above-national currency.

Key words: new world currency, dollar, euro, finance network, currency basket, golden standard, stabilization, standard of living, economical politics.

Die laufende Krise hat zu bestimmten Disputen über das Erschöpfen der Möglichkeiten des weltweiten Devisensystems, das auf US-Dollar gegründet ist, gebracht. Es sind die Vorschläge über die Einleitung der neuen, supranationalen Währung erschienen.

Die Analyse der Krise bringt zum Verständnis: der globale Markt soll die globale Gerechtigkeit, die Gerechtigkeit für allen, die man als Gleichgewicht der Interessen aller Teilnehmer der Wirtschaftstätigkeit verstehen.

Es ist, dass die globale Welt lang kann sich nur vorbehaltlich des globalen Konsenses zu entwickeln. Deshalb in der Tagesordnung heute — die Auswahl zwischen den Lösungen, wirksam vom Standpunkt «goldenen Milliarde», und den global rechtmäßigen Lösungen, wirksam für allen, einschließlich für die Länder der sich entwickelnden Welt. Die ersten führen zur Ansammlung der Disproportionen, der Verstärkung der Konfrontationen, die zweiten werden die harmonische Entwicklung der Menschheit gewährleisten.

Das Devisensystem ist mehrere Evolutionsschritte gegangen:

Schematisch kann man die Geschichte der Veränderung des Standards der Devisenweltsysteme auf folgende Weise vorstellen:

1) den silbernen Standard;

2) den goldenen Standard;

3) den Goldwährungsstandard;

4) das Monodevisensystem;

5) das Polydevisensystem.

Zwei ersten Etappen charakterisierten die Entwicklung der nationalen Devisensysteme. In irgendwelchen Ländern stützte sich das geldliche System auf das Silber, in irgendwelchen — auf das Gold. Der Eintritt dieses oder jenes Landes in diese Etappen stimmte mit der Bildung der standfesten staatlichen Bildungen in der Regel überein (mit XVI. auf dem XIX. Jahrhundert), ist ihr Abschluss dem Übergang der kapitalistischen Länder zur ausgedehnten Reproduktion gefolgt. Die dritte Etappe ist wie für die nationalen Devisensysteme der entwickelten Staaten, als auch für die globale Devisenordnung charakteristisch. Zwei letzten Etappen charakterisieren die Entwicklung der Standards des globalen Devisensystems.

Das moderne globale Devisensystem ist instationär von monodevisen- zu mehrdevisen. Die Krise hat diesen Übergang unvermeidlich beschleunigt. Während der Krise wurde die Doppelnatur des amerikanischen Dollars hell gezeigt, der die nationale Währung der USA und das weltweite Geld gleichzeitig ist. Es war die Steigerung des Widerspruchs zwischen den Funktionen des Dollars als nationale und internationale Währung bemerkt. Die Auslandsschuld der USA hat mehr $12 Billion jetzt erreicht. Eben setzt fort zu wachsen. Die Amerikaner drucken immer mehr Dollar, um die Löcher im Budget zu flicken. Das einfachste Beispiel in diesem Fall — die Durchführung von den USA der Politik, deren Untersuchung (und teilweise und dem Ziel, in Anbetracht des Bedürfnisses nach der Erhöhung der Konkurrenzfähigkeit der nationalen Produzenten) die Senkung des Dollarkurses ist. Das weltweite Geld in der Situation der Krise soll den Kurs hingegen zu erhöhen, der Zuflucht für das globale Kapital präsentierend. Der Prozess der Dollars Kursbildung hängt von den Interessen der USA ab und berücksichtigt auf keine Weise die Interessen der globalen Wirtschaft und des globalen Finanzmarktes.

Die Fachkräfte stellen fest, dass die Stütze der Weltwirtschaft auf US-Dollar dem Washington "das sogennate Privileg" gewährleistet. In den Bedingungen, wenn die amerikanischen Aktiva hauptsächlich in den ausländischen Währungen nominiert sind, und die Verpflichtungen der USA in Dollar fast vollständig nominiert sind, hat die allmähliche Senkung des Dollarkurses in der letzten einigen Jahren vor der Krise hat die USA die reine Zulage des Kapitals in Höhe von mehr 1 Billion Dollar gebracht.

Es wurde offenbar: die abgesonderte nationale Währung nicht im Zustand, die Funktionen der globalen Währung wenigstens nach der Errungenschaft des hohen Niveaus der Globalisierung der Wirtschaft und der Finanzen zu erfüllen.

Das Zweidevisensystem ist aufgrund Dollar und den Euro jenes nächste Ziel, zu dem sich zur Zeit das globale Devisensystem bewegt. Obwohl nach dem Umfang sich im Umlauf seiender internationaler Obligationen und der Instrumente des geldlichen Marktes des Euro schon Dollar überholt (siehe die Tabelle)

Die Währung

der Wert in Umlauf (Mrd. долл)

der Anteil (%)

Die Instrumente des internationalen geldlichen Marktes

Die internationalen Noten und die Obligationen

Insgesamt

Der Euro

511,3

10 862,5

11 373,8

47,70

US-Dollar

370,1

8 234,4

8 604,5

36,10

Pfund Sterling

148,9

1 705,6

1 854,5

7,80

Japanischer Jen

32,7

751,1

783,8

3,30

Der Schweizer Franken

24,1

331,4

355,5

1,50

Kanadischer Dollar

1,7

240,7

242,4

1,00

Australischer Dollar

9,7

193,2

202,9

0,85

Die weichen Währungen

26,9

282,2

309,1

1,3

Russischer Rubel

1,2

12,0

13,2

0,06

Die übrigen Währungen

4,9

121,2

126,1

0,53

Der Anteil des Euro in der Wendung des weltweiten Devisenmarktes überlässt immer noch ernst und in der Struktur der internationalen Reserven der Länder Dollar

Die Bildung des weltweiten Devisensystems, das auf dem Korb der Währungen gegründet ist, verringert ihre Risiken schon infolge der Diversifikation. Solches System ist mit den Interessen eines Landes viel weniger verbunden, aber immer noch stark hängt von den momentanen Interessen der Reihe der größten Staaten ab, was den Bedingungen der Lösung der Zivilisationskrise nicht entspricht.

Es existieren sieben Varianten der Entwicklung des weltweiten Devisensystems in die nächsten 10–20 Jahre.

Die Varianten der Entwicklung:

1) den goldenen Standard;

2) das Monodevisensystem aufgrund Dollar;

3) das Zweidevisensystem aufgrund Dollar und den Euro;

4) das Polydevisensystem auf der Grundlage bezüglich der großen Menge der Hauptreservewährungen;

5) das System, das die Bildung der einheitlichen weltweiten Reservewährung vermutet, in deren Qualität die speziellen Rechte der Entlehnung auftreten;

6) das System, das auf den regionalen Währungen und die regionalen Emissionszentren gegründet ist;

7) den Mehrwarenstandard.

Unter den aufgezählten Varianten sind zwei Rückgabe zur Vergangenheit — der goldene Standard und das Monodevisensystem aufgrund Dollar, deren Wahrscheinlichkeit genug niedrig vorgestellt wird. Hier muss man bemerken, dass die aktive Propaganda der Rückgabe zum Goldstandard, geführt in den Massenmedien Agitation für den Übergang zur rechtmäßigeren Preisbildung mit der Heranziehung der ganzen Mannigfaltigkeit der hergestellten Waren ist, was viel näher zum Mehrwarenstandard ideologisch ist.

Das Zweidevisensystem und das Polydevisensystem ist jener Trend, der aus der vorhergehenden Entwicklung in der natürlichen Weise folgt. Jedoch behindern die gegebenen Punkte der Evolutionsentwicklung nicht nur die Ansammlung der Disproportionen nicht, aber hingegen tragen aktiv dazu bei.

In drei Varianten der Architektur des globalen Devisensystems sieben betrachtet höher entsteht die neue weltweite Reservewährung.

Unter dem Mehrwarenstandard ist nötig es das System zu verstehen, das auf der einheitlichen weltweiten Währung gegründet ist, deren Berechnung des Kurses sich in Bezug auf die nationalen Währungen ausgehend von genügend breite Verzeichnis allgemeinanerkannt (in der Regel, börsen-) der Preise der Waren verwirklicht.

Zur Zeit ist die wahrscheinlichste Variante der Bildung der weltweiten Reservewährung das System, das auf den speziellen Rechten der Entlehnung des Internationalen Währungsfonds gegründet ist. Der ernste Vorteil dieser Variante — seine Unterstützung von China. Aus den maßgeblichsten weltweiten Fachleuten die Unterstützung dieser Variante hat George Soros geleistet.

Die speziellen Rechte der Entlehnung – Sonderziehungsrecht-Special Drawing Rights — SDR/SZR) — das internationale Reserveaktiv, das vom Internationalen Währungsfonds in 1969 wie die Ergänzung zu den existierenden offiziellen Reserveaktiva der Mitgliedsländer des Internationalen Währungsfonds geschaffen ist. Sein Erscheinen war eine Untersuchung der Vorstellung darüber in bedeutendem Maße, dass die wachsende Internationalisierung der nationalen Wirtschaften die Einleitung supranationaler Geldeinheit fordert. Deshalb ist die heutigen Ideen über die Nutzung SZR als das weltweite Geld in einem bestimmten Sinn "die Rückführung zu den Quellen». Der Kurs SZR klärt sich zum Korb der Währungen (zur Zeit Dollar, den Euro, japanischer Jen, Pfund Sterling). Der Anteil der Währungen wird einmal pro fünf Jahre revidiert. So liegt der Übergang von Dollar zu SZR im Flußbett des Übergangs zum Polydevisensystem zwecks des Abgangs von den Risiken US-Dollars auf Kosten von einiger Diversifikation.

Die Versuche der Bildung der regionalen Währungen schon wurden mehrfach unternommen. Einer von ihnen ist erfolgreich geendet: in Europa war die neue frei konvertierbare Währung des Euro, die die typische Regionale ist geschaffen. Der Erfolg der Einleitung des Euro ist auf der engen Wirtschaftsintegration der Länder Westeuropas, ihrer Unifizierung devisen-, haushaltsmäßig und anderer регулятивных der Regimes gegründet.

Andere Varianten der Einleitung der regionalen Währungen bis bleiben die Projekte mit der äußerst nicht hohen Wahrscheinlichkeit ihrer Realisierung in der nächsten Perspektive. Die Analyse vier am oftesten erwähnter Projekte der Einleitung der einheitlichen regionalen Währung zugelassen (der Länder des Persischen Golfs, der Länder Südostasiens, der Länder der Boliwarianski Alternative, der einheitlichen afrikanischen Währung,) hat, die Schlussfolgerung darüber zu ziehen, dass alle Pläne der Bildung irgendwelcher regionalen Währung bis im Begriff sind vollzogen zu werden.

Die betrachteten neuen Währungen:

1. Der Euro

2. Yuan

3. Jen

4. Der Dinar des Golfes (der Persische Golf)

Und obwohl die Größe der sich entwickelnden Wirtschaften die Situation der Kräfte tauscht, der zusammenfassende Konsument bleibt amerikanisch домохозяйство dennoch. Die USA werden noch eine führende Wirtschafts- und Militärmacht lange bleiben. Sie verstehen sehr gut, wie es vorteilhaft ist, wenn die eigene Währung über den Referentstatus verfügt: Washington kann ist frei und ist grenzenlos, die Schulden in der eigenen Währung nehmen, dabei die Möglichkeit habend, sie nach dem eigenen Ermessen zu drucken. Heute laufen zur Entlehnung und der Druckwerkbank übermäßig aktiv herbei, aber es kann lange nicht dauern.

Aber! Die Amerikaner haben einen Plan-amero. Schon die nicht geheime Währung Kanadas, die USA und Mexikos. Die Gespräche auf sie aller sind beharrlicher.

Wenn die USA Amero einführen werden, so können sie die ganze Welt, verzichtend von der Menge verfügbarer Dollar, die nach der ganzen Erde spazieren "werfen".

Aber diese Handlungen sind für heute sehr riskiert, es ist unwahrscheinlich, dass die Staaten va banque spielen werden, man kann das Vertrauen zu sich sprengen.

Dazu ist Amerika sehr stark die Gespraechposition nötig. Welche bei den USA in 1944 war. Und den Weg dazu ein - ins Chaos die ganze übrige Welt einzutauchen.

Nirgends gibt es keine jene Vorbedingungen für die Integration, die sich in Europa mehr hundert Jahre bildeten, nirgends ist die Arbeit nach der Unifizierung der Regulierung und der Annäherung der Makrowirtschaftsparameter durchgeführt. Es existieren die Projekte, deren Wahrscheinlichkeit der Realisierung in der langfristigen Perspektive von der Null ausgezeichnet ist, jedoch ist insgesamt die Variante des Übergangs des weltweiten Devisensystems zur Existenz aufgrund der regionalen Währungen wenigwahrscheinlich. Viele Experten bewerten diese Variante noch weniger optimistisch. So nennt der Exstellvertretende Vorsitzende ЦБ Alexander Chandrujew als seine reine Utopie.

Also, die Gespräche auf den Tod Dollar und seinen Ersatz sind als weltweite Reservewährung ganz vorzeitig. In der Praxis keine der Währungen heute nicht im Zustand, Dollar in der Rolle der Reserve- und Handelswährung zu ersetzen.

Für heute wird wahrscheinlichst das folgende Drehbuch vorgestellt: die Fortsetzung der allmählichen Umwandlung des Monodevisensystems, das auf Dollar gegründet ist, in polydevisen-, gegründet auf dem Korb aus mehreren Zahlen der Reservewährungen.

Literatur

[1] /news/41105.html

[2]/printissues/expert/2009/31/tovarnuy_yakor_dlya_mirovoi_valuty

[3] /2009/11/17/euro.html

[4]

Ватима Сами

Don State Technical University, Congo

USING BLOGS TO IMPROVE RELATIONSHIPS

The article describes how to improve relationships using blogs and how to influence the community and measure the impact of blog’s writing. The author gives a review of popular blogs in Kenya.

Key words: popular blogs, influence upon the community, measuring the impact of blog’s writing, consumers, network, promote high quality online local contents

Measuring Blogs and Online Relationships

The internet has brought about a revolution in marketing far beyond the scope that even the most forwad thinking of us might have imagined.Today,despite the best efforts of PR and marketing types,consumers continue to sieze power from the marketers.MitchKapor has described the internet as the “ultimate democratic society-a truly chaotic universe.” As The cluetrain manifesto and Naked conversations so clearly point out,the consumers are the media ,the editors and the reviewers.

Using the internet effectively

In moving from an industrial economy to an information economy,communication must change from the hierarchial,top-down model(the broadcast paradigm)to a networked,accessible system(the network paradigm).Expectations have shifted from pushing out a huge quantity of messages to improving their quality and relevance by customizing communication through email and discussion groups.Ass a massive volume of data has become available to organizations about their customers ‘preferences and desires,products and services are now customer-driven rather than producer driven.The internet is a ‘pull’ medium as users go to a website because they have specific information need, compared to print mediawhich ‘push’information at the receiver whether they want it or not.some companies ‘seed’ the diswitfavo

Another type of forum is the chat room.Chat takes place in real time,so is costly in terms of staff resources as someone has to be on hand to answer queries.A fast growing form of low cost website is a form of online diary called a web log,or blog.These sites have content added to them on regular basis and tend to have a niche following among friends. Some have considerable reach and others are commercially driven.

Blogs and you

A new blog is created about once every two seconds. News videos are posted to YouTube even more frequently. Virtually everyone with a computer goes online to search for information before making a purchase. Video search is taking over text search as the most popular form of search.politicians,marketers and individuals are embracing new forms of social networking such as second life,Twitter,and Flickr at unprecedented levels. People now have access to so much content and have so many ways to gather news and information, that the likelihood of your corporate message penetrating the clutter is virtually nil. Instead if u engage the audience in a conversation and learn what the social community is looking for and concerned about, you might be able to persuade them to hear your message. One major reason to pay attention to what people are saying about you.nother reason is that consumers may be discussing your products. If you sell computers,cars,consumer electronics,cell phones,printers,or any number of consumer items that people research or talk about online,you need to pay attention to blogs.If you know that your customers are going online to do research before they decide what to buy,you need to know what those customers are seeing and reading about you.

Social Capital and Social Networking measures

In essence, for an individual,the more relationships you have, the better your life is, the longer you live ,and the healthier you are. For a company good social capital means that information flows more easily,innovation and efficiency increase, and legal costs go down.

You can extend this concept to the networks created by blogs. If a blog is generating favourable comments,engaging employees or customers in the business of the organization, and disseminating information quickly and accurately, it is contributing to the social capital of your organisation. The higher you are ranked,the more speaking engagements you get and the more influence you have.

Internet accessibility in the Kenya

Kenya has the highest number of people accessing Internet facilities and services within the East African Community. According to a study conducted by TNS Research International, out of a population of 40 million, about eight million (20 per cent) have access to the Internet. Kenya has become a model for socio-economic development in East Africa as it enters a new phase of social, economic and technological growth. It has a committed government and motivated private sector are aggressively investing resources.

Kenyans are eager to communicate with each other, access information, develop social relationships, purchase goods and services online, network, and utilize digital technologies. Kenyans primarily use the Internet for email, social networking, for entertainment purposes and to collect information to stay informed on events, politics and sports. The potential for a Kenyan social network is very promising if it incorporates certain realities of the current Internet market landscape. A successful social network needs to be unique, relevant, and appeal to a broad demographic.

Blogging in Kenya

Blogs continue to grow as alternative news sources, in Kenya and around the world.Blogging, I think is the new frontier of information, opinion and news in our local society. Here we have a pool and a variety of news and information from different people on a wide range of issues. Most Kenyan bloggers devote themselves to the politics and social activism beat,  for example fuses politics, econ-social issues in his posts, as he tries to get Kenyans to make their leaders accountable. This being heady political times, one understands why it is interesting for bloggers to decide to write about politics as that is what has currently engulfed the nation, the small matter of it being just one year after general elections aside. Blogging in Kenya started out as personal journals, same as other parts of the world, and some of them continue with offerings of a dose of their daily lives. For blogs on wildlife, and endangered animals check out Predator Aware .Technology blogs which are the rage all over the world right now are slowly appearing in the Kenya blogosphere.  as a blog of has notably monopolized the finance beat by offering information on investment opportunities and the state of the Nairobi Stock Exchange . Blogs that cover street markets and spaces also straddle the Kenyan blogosphere, Kenyan poet offers a regular outpouring of poetry and a diary of sorts of the Nairobi entertainment scene. Nairobi Notebook writes about being a western journalist based in Kenya, while Theatre of Inconveniences mixes conservation and economic issues in the same page. Kenyan blogs offers an eclectic mix of issues which more than fulfills any reader's tastes. Here are some of the most prominent blogs in Kenya;Most humorous blog;HaidhuruThinker’s Room. Best political blog: MentalacrobaticsThinker’s Room. Best entertainment blog AcolyteCouch Potato,Kenyan Musings. Best.The most interactive blogger:,Mashada..Mashada is one of the most commonly used blog in Africa, is a chatting forum which exists to facilitate civil discussions and debates. Condescending, rude, and annoying remarks and insults are awarded with temporary and permanent bans. Forum members are expected to abide by its rules, among them a rule that states: "Personal aggression, condescension, rudeness, racism, bigotry, are banable offences."

Kenyan Blogging Community and the state of Local Online Contents

Over the last two months a number of bloggers have had serious discussions on the state of Kenyan online local contents. From their discussions it is clear that more efforts are needed to promote the growth of local contents. Kenyan Blogging.

Their aims are primarily to create and promote high quality online local contents and innovations,create viable online Marketing channel for the Kenyan companies, and have fun online.

Create and promote high quality online local contents:The strength of the community would be on what bloggers do individually on their blogs, on social media or sites…the challenge now is how to provide massive support for the new innovation in the community and business initiatives in Kenya. And that is why we have Bake for organized and structured conversation.

Create viable online Marketing channel for the Kenyan companies.The main aim is work on connecting good communicators with brands that appeal to people and the larger population in Kenya. The Kenyan brands are highly welcome to work and blend with the bloggers to reach their target audience.

Face to face or Facebook?

The full potential impact of the internet on the media relations cannot yet be assessed, but there is cleary strategic potential for using it as an information and transaction channel, for distributing news and for building communication channels.

New research techniques such as web analysis using tools like new generation eye-trackers to collect oblective data are changing the face of promotional planning via’saved time’, employing IT talents and offering new challenges to creativity. It is thought that some 260 million texts are sent daily, but people are increasingly suffering from a sense of isolation where human interaction is substituted by technology.This is a recipe for confusion and misunderstanding in personal and professional lives because ‘real life’ through eye contact,verbal and non-verbal responses becomes displaced.To avoid on line and offline disclocation,it is important than ever to meet other people face-face to reduce the possibility of message distortion, whether delivering good or bad news.

Literature

  1. Oliver, Sandra. Public relation strategy[Text]/S.Oliver.London: Kogan page, 2010-188p.

  2. Theaker, Alison.The public relations handbook[Text]/A.Theaker. London and New York:Routledge, Taylor&Francis Group,2004-363p.

  3. Paine, Katie Delahaye. Measuring Public Relationships[Text]/K.D.Paine. Berlin:KDPAINE&Parners,2007-202p.

  4. Blog at . Theme:  by . Copyright © 2009-2011 eGichomo

Ватруба Константин

Don State Technical University, Russia

NEW ACCENTS IN THE TOURISTYLE="INDUSTRY

Place of the tourist industry in the world business, prospects of the Russian entrance tourism, tourism infrastructure reorganization in Russia, new problems of the Russian tourist business, new routes of exit tourism

Key Words: tourism, Russia, Mexico, cure for national economic, Winter Olympic Games,

The estimation of a postcrisis state of the tourism industry, conditions of its development in Russia are given in the work, new tourist products and directions are offered.

The tourism industry is one of the most effective and perspective branches.

During the pre-crisis period cumulative incomes of tourism were in the world on the second place, conceding only to the computer industry and made more than 900 billion dollars.

During the postcrisis period incomes of tourism have decreased approximately on 30 %. But, under WTO forecasts, the market will not be restored, but will increase by 70 % the next 10 years.

Certainly, political instability in the Near East will contain growth of the tourist market in the countries of traditional world and Russian tourism for some time, but self-regulation and redistribution of tourist streams will allow the tourist industry to develop effectively again soon.

It is an unique chance for Russia to enter into ten world leaders of tourism now.

Winter Olympic games and the world football championship in Russia will certainly increase the interest to Russia all over the world.

Visitors from many countries will come to Russia and it is necessary to carry out these actions at high level in order to arouse the interest to our country and the main thing is the creation of preconditions for the subsequent use of the means spent for them.

Much is done for this purpose in Sochi now.

The creation of a mountain-skiing complex of world level, other sports constructions, the building of hotels of an economy class(the main thing) and the service enterprises will help Big Sochi to become the world center of tourism.

Now entrance tourism to Russia is only 6 % from internal tourism (about 2 millions persons) and only 12 % from them come with purely tourist purposes, the others — for the purpose of business or to visit relatives.

It is so because the majority of old house-keepers-hotels have been taken down or reconstructed into hotels of a business class with the above European prices and an infrastructure of the tourist routes is at the lowest level.

The tourist potential of Russia is huge.

Russia surpasses even the USA in natural and climatic indicator.

Winter tourism and also traditional summer and fishing and hunting, ethnographic and extreme can become the priority and can make a competition to any country.

Now a share of tourist business in gross national product of Russia is only 1,5 % .

It isn't enough. Even in Finland where there is nothing, except the nature and Santa Claus, it makes 6 %.

But after all Kareliya is much more attractive from the tourist point of view!

It is necessary only to enclose the means to create attractive zones and tourist routes.

The idea of one or more Russian Disney-Land creation lives for a long time.

Now business accustoms only 7 regions having the status of special economic zones. It isn't enough.

We must not forget about huge territory of Russia and the dearness of air flights.

It is necessary to create tourist zones in automobile or railway availability from any big city of the country.

The government program of development of the tourism containing, the tax privileges, grants for air tickets, allocation of recreational zones is necessary.

Now we have a situation when internal and entrance tourism prevails over the exit.

It is necessary to use these facts and fix a tendency.

As to exit tourism, it will be always interesting.

Even if Russia can break a situation with summer holiday to own advantage, interest to other countries won't weaken.

But it is necessary to develop new routes in addition and even replacement of traditional.

In the developed postcrisis situation when economic rounds have become more demanded, it is necessary to pay attention to the countries of the South America and Mexico.

These countries can satisfy requirements for tourism of any kind, and, at the low prices.

It is very important that the visa-free regime has been established with many countries.

And as to remoteness the price of air tickets to those countries is more low than, for example, the price of air tickets from Moscow to Vladivostok.

Mexico is especially interesting in the tourist plan.

And not only because there can be a combined round from the USA.

Mexico itself is a surprising alloy of all that can involve tourists.

Smart beaches, an unusual variety of the nature and fauna, the most ancient and advanced civilizations, the original and benevolent people you may have on rather reasonable prices.

For example I suggest familiarizing and estimating the appeal of the basic sights of Mexico.

Mexico (United Mexican States) occupies the 15-th place in the areas and the 11-th place in the population in the world.

It is the most economically developed country which has the developed industrially-agrarian economy in the Latin America.

Its uniqueness is in the integrally combination of one of the most ancient and the advanced civilizations.

Travel across Mexico is a travel to time.

Sights of Mexico are the relics of Maya civilization first of all.

The ancient city of Chichen-Itsa, one of 7-th miracles of the world, other pyramids, observatories and cities don't leave indifferent any traveller.

Wonderful beaches of the world entertaining centers, such as Cancun and Acapulco are estimated even by the Hollywood celebrities.

The capital of Mexico is Mexico City, it is the second city in the world by quantity of the population.

Most of all the museums and taxies in the world are there.

Its inhabitants consume most of all Coca in the world.

Wonderful ancient palaces and parks, modern skyscrapers and picturesque Indians do this city the most interesting and unforgettable.

Literature:

1. Анализ статистики въездного и выездного туризма, 2009 г.

Веретошенко Екатерина Ивановна

Спиридонова Екатерина Александровна

Don State Technical University

LAS TENDENCIAS DEL DESARROLLO DE LA INDUSTRIA DEL TURISMO.

Tourism plays more and more appreciable role in world economy. The beginning of a new millennium has been noted not only lifting of tourist movement, but also occurrence of new tendencies in development of the given branch. The tourism industry is affected by many different things: international events, economic change, changes in fashion. New concerns and worries appear every year, for example as people become more worried about security and international terrorism, or as the value of the currency changes.

Key words: tourism industry, tourist arrivals, economic changes, international events, development, hotels, globalization, travel.

El turismo internacional ejerce la influencia multilateral en la economía de los países de Europa occidental. Para el país separado él es el fuente de los ingresos de divisas que alimenta la parte lucrativa del equilibrio de paga. Con el desarrollo del turismo internacional por los ritmos rápidos se forma la industria turística, en que terreno es atraída la economía hotelera, el transporte, alimenticio, de calzado, la industria de confección, la construcción de maquinaria, el servicio de excursiones y muchas otras ramas de la producción material y los servicios. La industria turística que se desarrolla crea los nuevos puestos de trabajo, crecen los ingresos de la población, la salida de la producción; es elevado el nivel del bienestar de la nación en total.

La influencia benéfica del turismo internacional influye sobre la economía de todos sin excepción de los países de Europa occidental depende del grado de su desarrollo, también de, si es el país neto-exportador los servicios turísticos o no existen esto por el importador.

Tradicionalmente neto-exportadores los servicios turísticos en la Europa occidental son Austria, Suiza, España, Italia, Francia, Turquía, Portugal. Los otros países tienen el exceso de los gastos sobre los ingresos del turismo internacional, siendo neto-importadores el producto turístico.

El turismo extranjero ejerce la influencia esencial en la industria alimenticia. Muchos turistas organizarán independientemente el viaje, sin recurrir a los servicios de las agencias turísticas y los hoteles. Para esta categoría de los visitantes extranjeros son característicos los altos gastos para la adquisición de los productos de la alimentación.

El crecimiento del turismo estimula el desarrollo de la industria de construcción, en particular la construcción de los hoteles y otros objetos turísticos, incluso los puertos y los amarraderos para los paseos de mar, las plazoletas para el golf, los ascensores en los balnearios invernales de esquí.

El turismo internacional ha dado el impulso al desarrollo acerca de la nueva rama - la producción del material de esquí de montaña y la formación del mercado mundial de los esquíes especiales, el zapato y otra maquinaria. Al turismo internacional es vinculado el aumento de la demanda de la asistencia médica.

El turismo estimula el desarrollo de las ramas artesanas que se especializan sobre la fabricación de los recuerdos, la producción "las mercancías de la clase el lux" (la obra del arte aplicada, los artículos de joyería, la perfumería y las mercancías cosméticas) y otras ramas, en particular la industria ligera. En total las bastante grandes compras de los turistas en otro país adquieren el carácter de la exportación original "de casa", cuando a los importadores son los turistas. En Suiza los turistas extranjeros compran la parte considerable de las horas, hechas en el país, en Francia - la perfumería, en Italia y España - el calzado.

La influencia favorable en la economía de los países de Europa occidental prestan el turismo científico-técnico y comercial, organizado durante las visitas turísticas los simposios científicos, el cambio de la información técnica que trae a la utilidad mutua, la visita a las exposiciones y las ferias, el establecimiento durante el viaje turístico de los contactos de trabajo y la conclusión de los contratos.

Los ingresos del turismo estimulan el desarrollo de las regiones más visitadas por los viajeros extranjeros. Los gastos directamente directos de los turistas forman los ingresos de las agencias turísticas, los hoteles, las compañías de transporte y otras empresas de la industria turística. Por el efecto indirecto de los gastos directos turísticos son el aumento del sueldo al obrero local y el empleado, también la ampliación de los personales en las organizaciones turísticas. Ya que hay un aumento ulterior del sueldo en la región dada económica, el consumo tiene también la tendencia al aumento, y todo esto da en conjunto el impulso adicional para el desarrollo regional económico.[2]

El turismo de España.

Uno de los países más visitados en la Europa occidental es España. Dentro de la economía Española,el turismo es uno de los sectores mas rentables y con mayor proyección de futuro. Se trata de una industria muy asentada con más de 100 años de antiguedad. España,con más de 50 millones de turistas cada año, se consolida como un importante destino turístico mundial, el segundo del mundo después de Francia. La industria del turismo de España representa la rama clave de la economía del país, puesto que en ella es ocupada una gran cantidad de la población económicamente activa. El turismo español ocupa la posición que lidera en el mundo - por la asistencia del país, así como por los ingresos de divisas.

El turismo en España se basa en los monumentos de primera clase naturales, históricos y culturales, también sobre su estructura altamente desarrollado. La degradación del ambiente natural en España más abajo, que por término medio por los países de la CE; los territorios protegidos componen 40 % de los territorios semejantes de la CE. Una variedad de las culturas y los estilos estéticos en España ha engendrado la herencia rica cultural con más de 10 mil de monumentos guardados y 300 monumentos historicos.

España dispone de los objetos diversos numerosos turísticos y la maquinaria. Además, tiene "el know-how" muy considerable en la terreno dada, que será solicitada a menudo por otros países. En 1996 el Número de los lugares en los hoteles ha superado 1 mln. Hay complementariamente 300 objetos de mar turísticos, 136 campos de golf, 128 balnearios, 22 casinos etc.

España ocupa el lugar principal en la Europa occidental no sólo por la cantidad de las visitas turísticas, sino también por el peso específico de los ingresos del turismo en la exportación de las mercancías y los servicios, que durante los últimos años se conmueve dentro de los límites de 25 % (el índice centroeuropeo es estimado en 8 %)

La herencia histórico-cultural de España es rica y es diverso. El colorido de este país, sus bellezas inconfundibles inspiraban a Picasso, Goya, Velásquez, la Lejanía... La Influencia de los pueblos distintos, las religiones y las culturas, la posición fronteriza entre Europa y África, el carácter cerrado del Mediterráneo y бескрайность del océano Atlántico - todo esto ha encontrado el reflejo en los monumentos majestuosos y las tradiciones más interesantes de España. Ya en tiempos antiguos España era la extracción deseada para los invasores - de los fenicios hasta los romanos. En la Edad Media en su mayor parte los países poseían los árabes que han invadido aquí el siglo VIII de África del Norte. Al fin del siglo XV los cristianos han reconquistado España y la han unido. Todas las generaciones de los gobernadores trataban de conseguir y la unidad en la cultura, pero las tradiciones culturales de España son abigarradas, como antes. Y algunas regiones hasta ahora se enorgullecen por la originalidad y la independencia.

Prácticamente todo el país representa un museo enorme histórico al aire libre, rodeado por el anillo de las costas hermosas y las zonas balnearias, muchos de que se consideran mejor en Europa. El turismo en España le regalará el encuentro con las tradiciones más ricas culturales. España es un descanso ideal para las familias con los niños. El turismo y el descanso en España es las todas condiciones para los aficionados del descanso activo y el practicar el deporte.

Desde mediados del siglo XX, la imagen publicitaria de España se ha ido ampliando.En los años 60,ofrecía un turismo cultural de alto nivel con el lema «España es diferente». El sol, las playas y las fiestas fueron el enfoque para un turismo de masas ean la década de los 70. Una de las campañas de más éxito fue la de «Todo bajo el sol», que duró hasta los años 90. Después «Passion for Life» y «Bravo,Spain» mostraron una España moderna con una gran oferta turística de calidad. «Spain Marks» (Espana marca) resalta la huella que déja España en los que la visitan.La nueva campana «Sonríe,estás en España » presenta la estancia en España como una cura antiestrés, gracias al carácter franco y amistoso de los españoles.

Por su situación geográfica, España goza de un clima excepcional y de una gran extensión de costa con más de 2 000 playas.El sol y la playa siguen siendo lo que atrae a más turistas y por ello las comonidades autónomas más visitadas son Cataluña, las islas Baleares y Canarias, Andalucía y la Comunidad Valenciana.Pero España ofrece también al visitante otros atractivos.

El turismo cultural:Las ciudades Patrimonio de la Humanidad, los museos y los monumentos de todas las épocas históricas son destinos que atraen cada vez a más turistas.En estos viajes se combinan los intereses más diversos.Se pueden visitar castillos, catedrales y palacios en el Camino de Santiago o en la Ruta de la Lengua Castellana.También se puede hacer una ruta gastronómica y visitar además de monumentos, algunas bodegas de vinos de renombre internacional; o seguir la Ruta del Quijote y enfrentarse a los molinos de viento. Las posibilidades son infinitas.

Los Paradores de Turismo

Son hoteles instalados en edificios especiales: castillos,palacios,monasteries y casas señoriales que han sido, desde principios del siglo XX, restaurados y habilitados para alojar al turista más exigente . Actualmente hay casi 100 paradores en toda España, con una capacidad de más 10 000 plazas hoteleras. Más de la mitad de ellos se encuentran en un etorno monumental y nueve de ellos están en ciudades declarades Patrimonio de la Hamanidad por la Unesco.

La evolución del turismo rural en España ha modificado la imagen de nuestro país para el turista extranjero y es también una nueva forma de viajar para los españoles. Las viviendas rurales tradicionales y las posadas se han modernizado y hoy ofrecen al visitante un turismo diferente,alejado de las grandes ciudades y en contacto con la naturaleza.

El crecimiento de las cifras en el turismo de ocio demuestra el mayor poder adquisitivo de las familias españolas y el creciente peso del ocio en la vida económica de España. Modernos restaurantes y hoteles combinan su oferta con otras actividades como el senderismo,el golf o la navegación. El fenómeno de los parques temáticos completa la oferta de los tradicionales zoos,acuarios y parques de atracciones. [3]

Bibliografía

  1. Walker, R Tourism [Text] / Walker, R. Harding, K. – Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005.- 10 p.

  2. Turismo en el mundo [Text] – 2010. – [Электронный ресурс]. – Режим доступа: .

  3. Balea, A. Cultura Española [Text] / A. Balea, P. Ramos.- Printed en España, 2008. – 192 p

  4. Волкова Ольга Андреевна

Танькина Таисия Алексеевна

Don State Technical University , Russia

PR - MODE DE VIE OU UNE PROFESSION?

This article deals with the features of the PR-specialist in the modern world. The article reflects biography and professional activity of some well-known PR-specialists.

Key words: PR-specialist, mass media, communicability, ability to think, problem-solving capacity, motivation, competencies, literacy.

«Pour réussir, relations publiques modernes devraient être en mesure d'influencer les décisions de gestion du client, d'avoir une bonne intuition et de choisir les meilleurs outils pour la sensibilisation du public».

Harold Burson
De relations publiques, relations publiques dans les médias, relations publiques dans le show-business. Comme dans toute profession, le PR-spécialistes ont leur propre spécialisation. Chaque type de représentation proportionnelle implique ses propres particularités. Pour chaque besoin de certaines qualités de caractère et d'ambition ... 
Nous croyons que le travail de l'homme PR - elle est longue heures de travail, rythme effréné, la vitesse, d'être toujours connecté et à l'écoute non seulement de son entreprise, mais aussi des actions des concurrents; tonne d'informations qui devraient être étudiés et analysés, sur la base duquel d'écrire un communiqué de presse intéressants et ajouter il s'est spécialisé dans les médias. 
À notre avis, afin de réussir dans le domaine de la PR, le spécialiste doit avoir des connaissances et des compétences spécifiques. Ils doivent inclure l'alphabétisation, la crédibilité, la motivation, la capacité de prendre des décisions, des compétences en gestion. Spécialiste des relations publiques à l'écoute, être curieux, énergique et capable de travailler avec enthousiasme en raison. Et ces qualités, tout n'est pas nécessaire pour un spécialiste qui s'occupe des relations publiques

Par exemple, Richard Long, qui est un consultant en relations publiques, identifie cinq qualités qui aident à atteindre une croissance de carrière. La première est donnée à la performance, c'est la capacité de se concentrer sur les résultats plutôt que les précédents processus. C'est le principal facteur de succès.

La qualité suivante est appelée conceptualisation. Elle consiste dans le fait qu'un expert sur ​​les relations publiques doivent avoir les compétences pour se concentrer sur les besoins des clients, tout en ayant la capacité d'apprentissage facile et la capacité d'écoute.

Une autre qualité est sa capacité à établir des relations avec les gens. Le succès est tel spécialistes qui peuvent travailler en équipe, de séparer les objectifs personnels des objectifs généraux de cette équipe.

Pour l'avancement de carrière ont l'effet d'une telle catégorie en tant que style. Cela inclut la compétence constructive lorsque la confiance va dans l'art de la persuasion, et il contribue à l'atteinte de grands résultats.

Cette profession est recommandé pour ceux qui aiment à parler beaucoup et elle le fait avec plaisir. Un très grand nombre de datation, l'immense respect que peut être utile à tout moment - les aspects positifs de la RP. 
A titre d'exemple, nous voudrais attirer les professionnels des relations publiques modernes tels que: Harold Burson et Michel Dumas.

Harold Burson - patriarche de l'industrie américaine de relations publiques.

Il a fondé en 1953, l'agence Burson-Marsteller et un demi-siècle l'a transformé en un réseau mondial avec des filiales dans plus de 50 pays sur tous les continents. Harold Burson et son équipe ont pris une part active dans beaucoup de campagnes de relations publiques dans le nombre de leurs clients sont des grandes sociétés à travers le monde. Harold Burson n'a jamais été un théoricien, il était un praticien de PR - on dit aujourd'hui, le meilleur de l'histoire - et la société Burson-Marsteller - l'idéal PR-organisme identifié de nombreux adeptes de la voie qui devrait aller.

Harold Burson, estime que le PR-spécialiste, de travail pour créer une image positive de leur organisation ou leur client ne doit pas oublier que son travail est toujours l'OMM conduit également à l'intérêt de la société dans son ensemble.

Michel Dumas

Dans les relations publiques, une profession en devenir, lancé hier, Michel Dumas, professeur, consultant et vétéran des RP, analyse les défis auxquels font face les relationnistes, souvent associés à des manipulateurs d'opinions ou des doreurs d'image.

Dans son livre, publié aux Presses de l'Université du Québec, ce professeur associé au Département de communication sociale et publique et chercheur à la Chaire de relations publiques et communication marketing de l'Uqam, retrace l'histoire de la profession, tant dans le contexte mondial qu'au Québec. Puis, il explore les principaux défis de la profession, dont la formation et, surtout, l'éthique, la reconnaissance professionnelle et la réglementation.

La littérature à consulter :

1.Les Relations Publiques, une Profession en Devenir .Auteur. Michel Dumas. Éditeur. Presses de l'Université du Québec.

2. .Les Relations Publiques. Auteurs: Jean Chaumely; Denis Huisman.

3. Communication - Relations publiques .Auteur: Louis Dussault .Éditeur Presses de l'Université du Québec.

4. Mesurer l'insaisissable Méthode d'analyse du discours de presse. Auteur: Lise Chartier.

Вотинов Максим Валерьевич

Murmansk State Technical University, Russia

THE PROGRAM ALGORITHM FOR DEFINITION EXTREMUM OF SEVERAL VARIABLES FUNCTION ON THE BASIS OF GRADIENT DESCENT’S METHOD

Article contains the main principles of definition several variables function extremum on the basis of gradient descent’s method. Article deal with questions of choosing different algorithm’s methods for searching of function’s extremum.

Key words: program algorithm, optimizing, extremum, function, gradient descent’s method

The problem of object’s best values or parameters definition is put in the course of technical designing. Such problem is called as optimizing. An optimization problem in the mathematician is called the definition function’s extremum in variables domain.

There is a big variety of algorithms for searching of function’s extremum. The problem of choosing different algorithm’s methods for various target is actual for technical and applied science in present time.

By working out of program algorithms there is compromise between accuracy of approaching to an extremum point, time expenses of the electronic computer and simplicity of realization.

On chair of Automatics and computer facilities of Murmansk state technical university the program algorithm for defining an extremum of several variables functions is developed.

The essence of program realization of the module consists in used gradient descent’s method. In technical designing the function’s extremum in most cases is understood as minimum.

The basic idea of gradient descent’s method consists in moving to a minimum in a direction of the fastest decrease of function F which is defined by anti gradient F. For example, for function F (x, y, z):

(1)

(2)

(3)

«H» is step with which gradient descent’s method is carried out, in practice the step can be:

-constant;

-fractional;

-variable.

The choice of constant and fractional steps isn't optimum. Constant step gets out small method converges. Fractional step, as well as constant, leads to increase in iterations of function extremum searching.

The gradient descent’s method with variable step allows to get rid of lacks of constant and fractional steps. It can reduce quantity of search iterations and increase probability of method’s convergence. Such method demands definition of step «H» on each iteration by means of one-dimensional optimization.

Practice of work with the program algorithm has shown: using of the same value of step «H» for each function’s variable – is ineffective. The decision on addition in program algorithm step calculation differentiated on everyone variable of gradient descent’s method was accepted. Formulas have changed:

(4)

(5)

(6)

The step on each variable is defined from conditions:

(7)

(8)

(9)

Definition of a step differentiated on everyone variable of gradient descent’s method solves in the program algorithm by means of one-dimensional optimization algorithm, namely a golden section method.

The algorithm of search of an function’s extremum makes stop, at condition observance:

, (10)

where E - the absolute error entered by the user.

There are the test sums in the theory optimization, allowing to compare efficiency of various algorithms of function’s extremum search. The automated program module has been checked up on one of them, namely on function of Rozenbroke. The function of Rozenbroke have high degree of nonlinearity and slowly converging extremely. The function of Rozenbroke is defined as:

F (x, y) =100 * (y-x^2) ^2 + (1-x) ^2 (11)

At input of the given function in the program algorithm, an extremum, with accuracy of the offered method 0.001, was defined for 12-15 steps and depending on entry conditions.

Certainly, step differentiation of all variables of function leads to increase the program algorithm, to increase in time expenses at calculation, however even at input of difficult functions allows to come nearer to a point of an function’s extremum.

Practice shows that the given method often demands smaller number of operations, than a gradient descent’s method with constant step or a fractional step. Thus, the program algorithm for definition extremum of several variables function on the basis of gradient descent’s method provides the compromise between accuracy of approach to an extremum point and time expenses of the electronic computer. The given program algorithm can be applied as a basic algorithmic element to construction of global systems of optimization.

Гапоненко Оксана Владимировна

Don State Technical University

VERÄNDERUNGEN HEUTE UND INNOVATIONEN MORGEN

This article is focused on the recent changes. In the spheres of health care, communication, energy, bionics and environment protection. The article deals with the innovations of the related spheres in the directions of treatment of Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases, light innovations, robot technologies, new sources of energy, biological innovations and pollutions of big cities.

Key words: changes, health care, communication, bionics, environment protection, treatment, innovations, robot technologies, sources of energy.

Wir präsentiert Ideen, die unser Leben verändern – nicht in ferner Zukunft, sondern schon morgen. Die vorgestellten Forscher suchen Antworten auf brennende Zukunftsfragen: Wie werden wir leben? Verbünden wir uns mit der Natur? Werden wir tödliche Krankheiten heilen?

Gesundheit.

Die Hüter der grauen Zellen. Im Zentrum für Neuropathologie und Prionforschung der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität in München werden Ursachen und Diagnostik neurodegenerativer Erkrankungen erforscht. Um sie endlich heilen zu können.

Wenige Diagnosen verbreiten einen ähnlichen Schrecken wie Alzheimer und Parkinson, Creutzfeldt-Jakob-Krankheit und Hirntumore. Wissenschaftler auf der ganzen Welt arbeiten seit Jahren an Diagnostik und Therapie dieser Krankheiten des Gehirns. Das größte Institut in Deutschland ist das Zentrum für Neuropathologie und Prionforschung (ZNP) der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München.

Alzheimer - Hoffnung im Auge

Alzheimer ist die häufigste Form der Demenz. Eine frühe Diagnose der Krankheit ist schwierig. Forscher aus München verfolgen eine visionäre Idee: Sie wollen Alzheimer schon im Frühstadium per Augen-Scan entdecken.

Kommunikation.

Datentransfer - Sprechendes Licht.

In Zukunft können riesige Datenmengen über das Licht übertragen werden. Schon eine Leselampe würde genügen, um im Internet zu surfen, zu telefonieren, Fotos zu verschicken oder Filme anzusehen. Schnell und ohne störende Verzögerungen.

OLEDS - Es werde Licht

Organische Leuchtdioden (OLEDs) strahlen flächenhaft weißes und farbiges Licht ab. Eine Zukunftsvision der Forscher: Die leuchtende Tapete, die ihre Farbe auf Wunsch ändern kann und gleichzeitig als riesiger Bildschirm dient.

Flugzeuge der Zukunft.

Wie sehen die Flugzeuge der Zukunft aus? Bestehen sie nur aus Tragflächen, werden sie aufblasbare Flügel haben und sehen aus wie eine riesige fliegende Luftmatratze? Zurzeit probieren Forscher vieles aus. Nur eins steht fest: Flugzeuge der Zukunft werden nicht mehr mit Benzin fliegen können. Eher mit Wasserstoff oder Solarenergie.

Computer der Zukunft.

Wie sehen die Computer der Zukunft aus? Wissenschaftler haben schon jetzt eine verblüffend einfache Antwort: Die Computer der Zukunft wird man gar nicht mehr als solche erkennen. Warum? Weil sie überall eingebaut und integriert sein werden. In allen möglichen Gegenständen, die wir im Alltag, im Büro und in der Freizeit benutzen.

Mobilität
Roboter - Elektronischer Freund

Noch gelten Roboter als unkreativ und recht beschränkt. Doch das soll sich bald ändern. Roboter der Zukunft können lernen, selbständig Probleme lösen und mitdenken. Intelligente Maschinen, die dem Menschen immer ähnlicher werden - nicht nur äußerlich.

Methanhydrat - Rohstoffquelle Meeresboden.

Weltweit sind Millionen Menschen durch Arsen im Trinkwasser bedroht. Besonders gefährlich ist es in Bangladesch. Dort sind ein Drittel der rund 160 Millionen Einwohner einer schleichenden Vergiftung ausgesetzt. Deutsche Forscher haben einen Biosensor-Test entwickelt, mit dem Arsen schnell, sicher und billig nachgewiesen werden kann – durch Bakterien mit Lichtschalter.

Wie aus Geckofüßen Hightech wird

Warum können Insekten an Glasscheiben hochkrabbeln? Warum laufen Geckos an der Decke entlang? Diese erstaunliche Klebetechnik aus der Natur erforscht der Kieler Professor Stanislav Gorb. Er und sein Team untersuchen die Füße von Insekten und Geckos, um das Geheimnis ihrer Haftkraft zu lüften.

Zauberwort Bionik

Diese Mischung aus Biologie und Physik möchte sich der Mensch zu Eigen machen. Bionik ist die Technologie der Zukunft. Je weiter die Wissenschaftler in winzige Nanobereiche vordringen, desto mehr erfahren sie über die Geheimnisse der Natur. Auch die Nanotechnik schreitet immer weiter fort – so wird auch der Nachbau der natürlichen Kleinststrukturen immer leichter. Schon jetzt ist es Stanislav Gorb und seinen Kollegen gelungen, ein Klebeband zu entwickeln, das den Hafteigenschaften der Geckofüße nachempfunden ist. Es haftet an glatten Oberflächen und ist rückstandslos wieder abziehbar – millionenmal. Dieser Prototyp des Gecko-Tapes hält immerhin schon einen Hammer an einer Glasscheibe fest.

Umwelt

Wasser und Energie für rasant wachsende Städte

Immer größere Teile der Weltbevölkerung leben in wuchernden Städten. Die Infrastruktur kann mit dem Wachstum der Bevölkerung nicht Schritt halten. Dabei wäre genau das nötig, um die Gesundheit der Menschen und der Umwelt zu schützen. Nun haben Darmstädter Forscher eine Lösung gefunden.

Moped reiht sich an Moped, der Lärm ist kaum zu ertragen, die Luft so verpestet, dass der Hals schmerzt, nach einer Stunde in der Rushhour. Die Megacity Hanoi an einem ganz normalen Wochentag. Eine Szene, die sich auch in vielen anderen Schwellenländern abspielen könnte. Denn in diesen Ländern sprießen die Megacities dieser Welt. Und wachsen rasant und nahezu unkontrollierbar. Um 160.000 Menschen, jeden Tag.

Literatur

  1. www.futurenow.dw-world.

  2. www.dw-world.de

Глазунова Людмила

Don State Technical University

BERECHNUNG THERMISCHER KENNWERTE EINES RADIOELEKTRONIKGERÄTES

Die Funkelektronik entwickelt sich ungestüm. Die Projektierung eines Radioelektronikgerätes ist ein arbeitsaufwendiger Prozess. Die ingenieurmässigen Berechnungen sind also eine wichtige Etappe der Projektierung. Für die Lösung dieses Problems lässt sich Software „SolidWorks” effektiv anwenden. Mit diesem Programm wird der Abkühlungsprozess eines Emfangsignalвlocks simuliert.

Einleitung

Der Emfangsignalвlock (weiter der Block) gehört zur Bordapparatur des Flugzeuges. Der Block soll den Zuverlässigkeitsforderungen entsprechen. Die Zuverlässigkeit hängt von der Konstruktionsqualität ab. Dazu trägen vor allem auch die maximalen Möglichkeiten der Simulation- und Konstruierenmittel bei. Die Aufgabe des Konstrukteurs ist die Optimierung der Konstruktion bei den destabilisierenden klimatischen Einwirkungen, deren Intensität mit den Einsatzbedingungen verbunden ist. Die Temperatur eines Mikrochipkristalls soll insbesondere 70ºС nicht überschreiten; der Luftdruck beträgt dabei 150-450 Torr, die Lufttemperatur von -50ºС bis 65ºС, die Luftfeuchtigkeit 98 %.

Für die Radioelektronikgeräte wurde die Koeffizientrechenmethodik früher entwickelt [2]. Im Vergleich dazu haben die Berechnungen mit SolidWorks doch mehrere Vorteile. Das sind die automatische Zusammenstellung eines analytischen Berichtes, die gleichzeitigen thermischen und mechanischen Berechnungen, leichte Anwendung, keine Handberechnungen, die Vereinfachung der Ergebnisinterpretierung und -auswertung.

Das Ziel der Berechnung ist die Simulation des Wasserkühlungsprozesses des Radioelektronikgerätes, dessen Effizienzeinschätzung, unter Berücksichtigung der Einsatzbedingungen und Zuverlässigkeitsforderungen des zu untersuchenden Objektes.

Aufgabestellung

Der Block (Bild 1) hat die folgenden Elemente: die Exothermelemente, ein Blockgehäuse, ein Wasserkühler, die Pfropfen, fünf Platten, fünf Plattenheizkörper.

Für Berechnungsmodul SolidWorks Flow Simulation sind die zu den realen Einsatzbedingungen angenäherten Aufgabenparameter anzugeben, Berechnungen auszuführen und die Ergebnisse zu interpretieren.

Die Grundlage der Rechenmethodik bildet erstens das mathematische Modell der zu berechnenden physischen Prozesse und zweitens die Berechnungsweise der gestellten mathematischen Aufgabe.

Die mathematischen Modelle stellen ein die Physikgesetze wiederspiegelnden System der Differential- und Integralgleichungen mit Rand- und Eingabebedingungen dar, die das vorliegende mathematische Modell an die gestellten konkreten Ingenieuraufgabe anbinden.

Die Bewegung und der Wärmeaustausch des flüssigen Mediums wird mit der Navier-Stokes-Gleichungen simuliert [1]. Der Wärmeaustausch im Festkörper wird mit der Wärmeleitfähig-keitsgleichungen simuliert [2]. Der Strahlungswärmeaustausch wird mit dem Stefan-Bolzman-Gesetz simuliert [3].

Diese Systeme der Differentialen haben keine analytische Berechnung. Sie werden im Programm SolidWorks diskretesiert und mit einem Rechennetz berechnet.

Bild 1 – Der Emfangsignalвlock (Blockdeckel ist auf der Frontansicht latent)

SolidWorkssimulation

Im Programm SolidWorks bauen wir das 3D-Modell des Blocks (das Bild 1). Der Blockaufbau ist vereinfacht (das Bild 2), weil die Ressourcen des Programms begrenzt sind. Auf dem Bild 2 ist das Vereinfachungsmodell vorgestellt. Wir ersetzen die komplizierten Elemente durch die vereinfachten sowie beseitigen die Elemente, die auf das Berechnungsergebnis keinen Einfluss haben. Die Position 1 und 2 sind Platten, dahinter mehrere Plattenheizkörper und Mikrochips liegen. Diese Mikrochips sind die exothermische Elemente. Zwei Mikrochips, deren summarische Wärmeleistung 15 Watt beträgt, bilden das Stromversorgungsmodul VICOR V24C5T50BL3. Vier Mikrochips, deren summarische Wärmeleistung 100 Watt ist, bilden eine Steuerungseinrichtung. Die Position 3 ist das Blockgehäuse. Die Position 4 ist der Wasserkühler. Auf dem Bild 3 sind Mikrochips und Plattenheizkörper gut zu sehen. Zwei Pfropfen an dem Blockkörper sowie zwei Pfropfen der Wasserkühlerkanäle hermetisieren die Innenräume. Sie dienen dazu, ein Teilgebiet mit dem Kühlwasser im ersten Fall und ein mit der Luft im zweiten Fall zu schaffen. Die Ein- und Ausgabebedingungen der Wärmeträger sind auf den inneren Seiten des Pfropfens anzuwenden.

Bild 2 − Ein Vereinfachungsmodell (Blockdeckel ist auf der Frontansicht latent)

Die Degradationprozesse bei den Temperaturen niedriger als 0 ºС, der Feuchtigkeitsniederschlag, die Veränderung der elektrischen Charakteristiken, die Deformationen der angrenzenden Details werden in den Berechnungen nicht betrachtet, weil die Potenzen des Programms begrenzt sind. In der Berechnung betrachten wir den Fall, bei dem die Überhitzung, d.h. die maximale Lufttemperatur 65 ºС, am wahrscheinlichsten ist.

Um das mathematische Model mit der konkreten Physikaufgabe und mi dem Raumgebiet zu vereinigen, werden die die physischen Prozesse zu bestimmenden Bedingungen angegeben.

Das Material der Konstruktion ist hauptsächlich die Aluminiumlegierung AlMn5. Das Material der Platten besteht aus ein Glashartgewebe. Der Kanaldurchmesser beträgt 10 mm. Die Kühlwassertemperatur am Kanaleingang ist 35±5ºС. Die zulässige Temperatur ergibt 343 K oder 70 °C. Der Verbrauch macht 1 l/min aus. Die Aufgabe der Abkühlung besteht in der Wärmeabführung von der exothermischen Elemente auf den Tragwerk sowie in der Konvektionswärmeabgabe von der Konstruktion zum Wärmeträger.

Die Randbedingungen: die Temperatur des Blocks ergibt 65ºС, die Temperatur der Luft ist 65ºС. Innerhalb des Blocks sind zwei flüssige Medien bestimmt: die Luft und das Wasser. Die Lufttemperatur beträgt 65ºС. Die Wassertemperatur ist 40ºС. Die Wassergeschwindigkeit macht 0,213 m/s aus. An den Blockwänden ist der Wärmeübergangskoeffizient bestimmt.

Рис. 3 – Temperaturverteilung des Blocks (Blockdeckel sowie Platten sind auf der Frontansicht latent)

Es wurden auch der Strahlungsfaktor und Emissionsgrad der Konstruktionselemente, die Oberflächenrauheit, die Wärmeleistung der exothermischen Elemente bestimmt. Zwischen den thermoaktiven Elementen und dem Blockgehäuse ist das dem Schutzschicht entsprechende Modell des thermischen Kontaktwiderstands simuliert. Der Grund dafür ist die hohe Außenluftfeuchtigkeit.

Für unsere Berechnungen ist ein Rechnungsnetz der finiten Elemente aufzubauen. Eine Zelle der finiten Elemente ist ein finites Volumen [4].

Quantitative Ergebnisse und Schlussfolgerungen

Die Lösung des Gleichungssystems für die stationären Prozesse hängt von den folgenden Bedingungen ab:

1) die physischen Bedingungen, die die thermophysikalische Eigenschaften des Mediums charakterisieren;

2) die geometrischen Bedingungen, die die geometrischen Größen und die Volumen des Systems bestimmen;

3) die Randbedingungen, die die Wechselwirkung zwischen verschiedenen Außengrenzen des betrachteten Systems bestimmen.

Das Variieren von diesen Bedingungen beeinflusst den thermischen Prozess.

Рис. 4 – Temperaturverteilung des fluiden Mediums (Blockdeckel sowie Wasserkühler sind auf der Frontansicht latent)

Die Berechnungen haben gezeigt, dass sich die Wärmeausstrahlung in die Luft beim herabgesetzten Luftdruck und bei der Lufttemperatur 65 °C sowie die Wärmekonvektion mit der Luft um 9 Prozent im Vergleich zu den normalen Einsatzbedingungen um 17,8 Prozent verringert sind, weil sich die Wärmekapazität der Luft fällt.

Der Wasserkühler hat also größtenteils Wärmeabführung realisiert. Die summarische Wärmeleistung ist 125 Watt. Die Leistung des Wasserkühlers beträgt 80 Watt. Die Kühlwassertemperatur ist also um ein halbes Grad erhöht (Bild 4, b). Die Mikrochiptemperatur ergibt ca. 325 K oder 52 ºС, es ist also um 18 Grad niedriger als die zulässige (Bild 3). Die Plattentemperatur beträgt ca. 327 K oder 54 ºС. Die maximale Luft-temperatur ergibt ca. 337 K oder 64 °C (Bild 4, а). Das lässt die sichere Arbeit des Blocks vorherzusagen.

Wenn das Variieren von den physischen und Grenzbedingungen indisponibel ist, kann man erstens die Kanalgeometrie sowie zweitens die Wärmeleitfläche ändern.

Der Wärmeaustausch wächst im ersten Fall bei der Verringerung des Kanaldurchmessers von 11 mm bis zu 2 mm (Tabelle 1). Bei der Vergrößerung der Durchflussgeschwindigkeit steigt die Turbulenz der Randschicht im Kühlwasser. Der Wärmeaustausch verringert sich beim Durchmesser unter 2 mm, weil die Wärmeleitfläche auch verringert wird (Tabelle 1). Der Wärmeaustausch vermindert sich beim Kanaldurchmesser über 13 mm, weil sich die Geschwindigkeit der Strömung auch fällt. Dabei ist der Wärmeaustausch bei jedem der Kanaldurchmesser des Einstellbereichs effektiv.

Tabelle 1 - Abhängigkeit der Wärmeprozessparameter vom Kanaldurchmesser

Kanal-durch-messer, mm

Kühlwasser, К (ºС)

Minimale Mikrochip-temperatur, К (ºС)

Мaximale Mikrochip-temperatur, К (ºС)

Wasser-geschwin-digkeit, m/s

Wasser-kühler-leistung, W

2

313,35 (40,2)

321,6 (48,5)

328,5 (55,4)

5,3

82,1

4

313,25 (40,1)

321,1 (48)

327,6 (54,5)

1,327

81,29

6

313,3 (40,15)

321,7 (48,6)

328,2 (55,1)

0,589

79,92

8

313,4 (40,25)

324,4 (51,3)

329 (55,9)

0,332

78,02

10

313,5 (40,35)

324,8 (51,7)

330 (56,9)

0,212

76,39

11

313,55 (40,4)

325,2 (52,1)

330,1 (57)

0,175

75,38

13

313,45 (40,3)

326,85 (53,7)

330,4 (57,3)

0,126

76,57

15

313,6 (40,45)

322,55 (49,4)

329 (55,9)

0,094

76,51

Der Wärmeaustausch hängt im zweiten Fall von der Oberflächenrauheit der Wasserkühlerkanäle ab. Die Geschwindigkeit des Wärmestroms ist um 10 Prozente weniger an den rauhen Wänden als an den unrauhen. Das Vorhandensein der Rauheit wirkt sich nicht auf die Ausstrahlungseigenschaften der Oberflächen wenigstens bei den Modellen SolidWorks Flow Simulation aus.

Die Berechnung zeigt, dass im Block die zusätzlichen Spannungen der thermischen Ursprung vorhanden sind. Die Maximalspannung ist 1972 Pascal. Um die Thermostabilität des Blocks zu vergrößern, muss man der Wärmeausdehnungskoeffizient verringern und die Wärmeleitfähigkeit steigern. Deswegen vergrößern wir die Dicke der Werkteile und ersetzen das Konstruktionsmaterial durch das thermostabileren, wie z.B. АlMn6.

Literatur

1. Dulnew G. N., Taranowski N. N. Die thermischen Regimes der radioelektronischen Apparatur. L.: Energia, 1971.

2. Nachschlagewerk Konstrukteurs REA. Die Grundprinzipien des Konstruierens / Hg. von R. G. Warlamow. М.: Sow. Radio, 1980.

3. Isatschenko W. P., Osipowa W. А., Sukomel А. S. Wärmedurchgang. ─ М.: Energia, 1981. 417 S.

4. Gallager Р. Finite-Elemente-Methode. Grundlage: Übersetzung ins Englisch ─ М.: Мir, 1984.

Joyce Горковенко Татьяна

Don State Technical University, Russia

THE DYNAMICS OF THE OUTWARD INVESTMENT POSITION OF THE RUSSIAN TRANSNATIONAL CORPORATIONS

This article focuses on the dynamics of the outward investment position of the Russian Federation, using balance-of-payments data, as well as the main target regions/countries and sectors of foreign acquisitions of Russian TNCs, based on cross-border merger and acquisition (M&A) data. It is followed by analysis of the Russian TNC universe and their motivations to invest abroad.

Key words: outward foreign direct investment, transnational corporations, Russian TNCs, merger and acquisition, internationalization

During the 1990s, the Russian Federation was a major capital exporting country, with its FDI(Foreign direct investment) outflows often exceeding inflows. At the beginning of transition, most of FDI outflows were of an informal nature; until 1999 the officially registered outward FDI stock hardly surpassed US$10 billion (figure 1). Since 1999 Russian outward FDI stock has expanded rapidly, with its growth rate surpassing those of other emerging markets such as Brazil, India, China and South Africa .

Figure 1. Outward FDI stock of the BRICS countries, 1993–2006

(Billions of US dollars)

Russian outward investment is boosted by rising volumes of cross-border M&As.(merger and acquisition). While M&A purchases by Russian TNCs tripled between 1992–1996 and 1997–2000, and between 1997–2000 and 2001–2004, they soared more than 10 times in the last four years.

Cross-border M&A data are also important sources of information on the patterns of outward FDI from the Russian Federation because they permit to analyse the geographical and industry patterns of the foreign expansion of Russian firms; these details are not available from the FDI data.

As for the geographical distribution of acquisitions abroad, data show that

Russian firms targeted mostly developed country firms, despite the fact that the expansion of Russian TNCs often started in other member countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) .

Nevertheless, the highest share of the CIS in M&As (28%) was recorded in 2001–2004. Moreover, only in the last four years were there notable acquisitions by Russian firms in developing countries, mainly in Asia but also in Africa. At the country level, the United Kingdom is the country with the largest M&A purchases from the Russian Federation. In 2001–2004, 41% of purchases took place in the United Kingdom. In 2005–2008, the United Kingdom accounted for 33%. Canada has been another important target country, reflecting the acquisition of LionOre by Norilsk Nickel in 2007.

Table 1. Cross-border M&A puchases by Russian TNCs, by host country/region, 1992–June 2008 (Millions of US dollars)

As for the sectoral composition of M&A purchases, most of the acquisitions of Russian firms were made in the primary sector (Table 2). It accounted on average for 60% of investments in the last three sub-periods.

Table 2. Cross-border M&A puchases by Russian TNCs,

by host sector/industry, 1992–June 2008

(Millions of US dollars)

The share of the primary sector was low in 1992–1996 (9%) but it increased very quickly since then, especially that of petroleum and gas, but also that of other mining. Manufacturing was the main sector where purchases took place in early 1990s; however, by 1997–2001, its share fell to 8%, although it picked up again later on, reaching 24% in 2005–2008. A different pattern was followed by investments of Russian firms in the services sector. Their share in M&A purchases was very low in 1992–1996, but then it increased to 34% in 2001–2004. In the last four years, its share was 16%. Within services, telecommunications was by far the most important industry.

2. The universe of Russian TNCs

In the Russian Federation, capital exports are driven by large industrial conglomerates, especially in natural-resource-based industries.

Table 3. The 20 largest Russian firms, ranked by market capitalization, end 2007

The largest, and probably most important, ones are in the oil and gas industry, with Gazprom, and Lukoil as examples of full-fledged international players, while Novatek, Rosneft, Tatneft and TNK-BP have more limited foreign activities.

A second group is in metal processing, including Severstal, UC Rusal, Norilsk Nickel and Evraz.

The third group is in telecommunications, with Sistema (including its affiliate Mobile TeleSystems) and VimpelCom being both important TNCs.

Lukoil is the largest Russian TNCs by foreign assets, ranked second among the world’s privately-owned oil companies by proved hydrocarbon reserves.

84% of its sales take place abroad. The company has been active in around 25 foreign oil and gas exploration and production in the neighbouring CIS countries, Middles East, Africa and Latin America.

In metallurgy, Severstal is the largest steel producer of the Russian Federation

and the 3rd largest Russian TNCs by foreign assets. It became supplier to leading American auto manufacturers thanks to the acquisitions of the fifth largest steel maker of the United States Rouge Industries, as well as the construction of the greenfield plant SeverCorr in 2007.

Norilsk Nickel is a world leader in the production of several strategic metals, in particular, palladium, platinum, nickel, cobalt and copper. The company’s international network includes production enterprises and trading firms spanning from nine countries on five continents.

Evraz Group – another iron and steel TNCs with large foreign assets – is a vertically integrated metallurgical major. Its first European acquisitions in 2005 in Italy and Czech Republic allowed the company to follow a profit seeking strategy in these important markets.

In telecommunications, Sistema, a holding company owning electronics, insurance, banking, real estate, retail, and media companies, derives most of its revenues from its telecommunications branch, which itself controls more than 50 operators in fixed and mobile telephone and other communication services.

The conclusion

The past several years have witnessed the rapid growth of Russian FDI outflows. Such strong internationalization of Russian companies astonishes many experts.

Nevertheless I suppose the Russian investment expansion has not reached its peak. Many new Russian TNCs can appear in next few years. In fact, scientists underestimate the whole economic potential of Russia because the deep industrial decline during the Russian transformation of the 1990s. However new Russian firms have competitive advantages and their owners want to be global players. Furthermore, modern Russian TNCs make up a very heterogeneous group.

Literature

  1. United Nations Conference on Trade and Development WORLD INVESTMENT

  2. Kalman Kalotay

  3. Alexei V. Kuznetsov

  4. http://www.tse.fi/pei/pub

Давидян Лола Ваноевна

Rostov State Economic University, Russia

LAS PERSPECTIVAS DEL DESARROLLO DE LA INDUSTRIA DEL TURISMO EN LA REGIÓN DEL DON

This work is dedicated to the tourism in Russia, namely to the tourism in Rostov region, and the ways of its development . The work deals with some most interesting and unique places , worth to be seen, with the current condition and ways of organizing a tours to them. We also mention some types of recreation, which could be offered to persons visiting Rostov and Rostov Region, and tell about touristic routes already existing in the region.

Key words: Rostov region, boating tourism, reserve, eco-tourism, Cossacks, Ethnographic Museum, Azov, Tanais, Sholokhov, Don.

Como se sabe, Rusia es el país más grande del mundo, tiene 9 zonas horarias, limita con 18 países, incluye en sí 83 regiones, los pueblos de Rusia hablan más de 100 idiomas y dialectos, en el país se encuentran 35 parques nacionales y 84 vedados, es el único país con las cuatro zonas climáticas.

-Es fácil imaginar la cantidad de los lugares que vale la pena ver. Pero, por desgracia, el turismo no esta desarrollado en todas las partes y regiones, porque es muy difícil alcanzar a algunos lugares debido a las enormes distancias entre ellos

- Nos interesa la nuestra zona donde vivimos, o la región del Don, como la llaman, es un de los más pintorescos y ricos regiones del país, así que voy a contar sobre las perspectivas del turismo aquí y los destinos turísticos ya existentes en la región que vale la pena visitar.

- La región de Rostov tiene buenas perspectivas en el desarrollo de turismo fluvial , que les gusta a muchos turistas.

- También se puede desarrollar y tal dirección como el eco-turismo.
- Otro tipo de la posible forma del turismo es el turismo rural y etnográfico.

En la región de Rostov viven los cosacos del Don, son un grupo especial étnico de la población de Rusia. En este contexto, parece oportuno incluir el programa de la estancia de los turistas en sus aldeas.

- También se puede visitar varios museos etnográficos, tales como:
Razdorsky Museo Etnográfico, Starocherkasskaya Museo Histórico y el vedado.

-Entre las lugares de interes en Rostov-on-Don Rostov se distingue la Catedral de la Natividad de la Santísima Virgen. La Catedral fue construida en 1885 por el famoso arquitecto ruso, K.A Tono - el autor de la Catedral de Cristo Salvador, el Gran Palacio del Kremlin y la Armería en Moscú.

-En Azov, La fortaleza de Azov. Por esta fortaleza durante casi 100 años fue la guerra ruso-turca. Y sólo en 1774 fue anexionada finalmente a Rusia.

-En Tanais, El Museo Histórico- Arqueológico y el vedado "Tanais". Aquí se encuentran las ruinas de una antigua ciudad fundada a principios del siglo III a.c. por Griegos. En el territorio se ubican las excavaciónes y la reconstrucción de puentes y edificios de la ciudad antigua.

  1. Way to Getting Wired

  2. /africa/nota

Камау Энн Харриет

Rostov State Medical University, Kenya

Reception of higher education by students from the African countries

The article highlights the problem of adaptation of African students at the university, describes some aspects of adaptation (social, psychological and cultural). the author identifies the different nature of the difficulties faced by African  students in Russia and reviews the Kenyan education system

Key words: foreign students, process of adaptation, socio-cultural environment, language difficulty, customs, training, educational system

Kenya, officially the Republic of Kenya, is a country in East Africa. Lying along the Indian Ocean to its southeast and to the equator, it is bordered by Somalia to the northeast, Ethiopia to the north, Uganda to the west and Tanzania to the South.

Like many young people studying abroad, Russia's foreign students must contend with homesickness and poverty. Few can afford even an occasional trip home. But the difficulties they face are compounded in a country like Russia, such as orientation, language, customs such as constant control of process of their adaptation is important which includes set of aspects, most important of which are: the adaptation to new socio-cultural environment, educational system, language of dialogue, adaptation to culture of the new country, etc. They pass through a set of social-cultural distinctions and difficulties, such as valuable orientation, language, customs etc. After arrival, the foreign students typically have financial misunderstandings due to other currency usage, which cause stress. Many students complain of loss of appetite, weariness, slackness, sleeplessness, bad mood. But on the other hand, many students have noted the huge help of native people, i.e. students of their home country, who live in Moscow, St. Petersburg or any other city already.

Each foreign student goes through language difficulty after arrival. The students are put through inconvenient situation when they have a hard time explaining the service they want; the problems arise at purchase of items in a store. Only through gestures, separate phrases in English or Russian, the foreign students can communicate with the Russian people. The distinction in gestures and the enunciation of phrases cause laughter, surprise, and at times carry indecent character that very much afflicts and confuses the foreign students.

The adaptation of the foreign student to the new environment should be flexible. The students consider certain level of base preparation, level of Russian knowledge, individual ability to training, feature of national mentality.

One of the important aspects of adaptation of the students to training is the understanding of a new system of formation and its acceptance. The educational systems of Kenya and Russia differ on some items. One of the important psychological aspects is that the students do not address to the teacher by their first name but first name and a patronymic of the teacher.

Study of Russian does not cause much difficulty and is generally provided at a very high level. The main preparation of the foreign students is the fast and effective mastering of Russian. The better the language is learned, the more effectively adaptation will occur; the faster foreign students cease to hesitate to address the requests and questions in Russian.

The foreign students hardly experience misunderstanding, conflict on the part of the teachers, as they said idealist "accelerator" of adaptation is the creation of an atmosphere " of a kind house, where each student - foreigner " would find itself".

The foreign students with interest in learning Russian and its people, customs, life, and attitude should visit museums, exhibitions, concerts, drama theatre, meeting and evening of international friendship with the students of high schools and colleges. This promotes adaptation of the foreign students. Having overcome the significant period of process of adaptation, there are other sights they can begin to appreciate. I consider that the part of the given problems can be resolved with the creation of a psychological service for the foreign students coming to study in Russia.

Lots of students go to Russia with the idea that they'll spend the year eating cabbage and potatoes and drinking vodka. Well, the vodka bit is often true. Apart from the inevitable cabbage and potatoes, however, there are some foods I learned that one can try. Like Bliny with Smetana (pancakes with sour cream). These are also delicious with herring, condensed milk, honey, jam, caviar or just about anything.

Pel'meni with Smetana (meat dumplings with sour cream) Pickled cucumbers and mushrooms: you know you've been in Russia too long when you start craving these! Pickled cucumbers and mushrooms: you know you've been in Russia too long when you start craving these! Soups such as borshch (beetroot soup) Kholodets (meat in jelly) just to mention but a few.

I guess just like many others, am not exclusive when it comes to dreading the harsh weather in winter. It is always cold and almost an impossible situation to adapt however long one can stay in Russia. The snow is definitely a perfect surprise for all of us who see it for the first time but with time you realize how bad the surprise is when you are totally frozen!

However difficult it is to find part time jobs in Russia, some of the students have been able to get work as barmen, waiters or cooks' helpers and at some fast food stalls. There are few who work at nightclubs and discos. Of course, there also exists a possibility of working as a cleaner (in office or a private house), sometimes as a maid in a hotel (that may require some qualification), as a babysitter (also requires qualification and recommendations from previous employers), a loader or a house builder (this jobs are in high demand all the year round). Foreign students do not have job criteria, and the possibility for working is not very well defined in the law books, but basically it is not legal for foreigners to work, while being a student.

Unlike other different parts of the world including Kenya, I must confess that Russian universities do not have such traditions as "ragging" or "flaying" unlike most of the educational institutions in India and some western countries. Russian students respect the presence of a foreigner in their group or just ignore them, in this case: the choice is yours, you be friends with them or you don't.

Yes, Russian education is cheap and the Russian lifestyle is still not of a high standard as of the European countries but since the country is going through a very progressive economical change, the inflation problem is as same as anywhere in the world.

The usual yearly inflation is between 7% and 20%! The cost of living is also rapidly increasing, but Russia still is one of the cheapest among the European countries. Keep in mind that education fees and living expenses in large cities can differ from that in smaller towns. You can also try to find some job for extra pocket money.

And lastly I guess this is the most feared topics for any new foreigner in Russia. In the past few years there have been many incidents in St. Petersburg and Moscow, in which foreign students have been beaten up by the so called "Skin Heads". The torturing fact is that these hooligans have a legal and active political party; the mayor of Moscow has banned any form of demonstration from members of this organization. This is the problem not only for foreigners, but for locals themselves - they can be beaten as easily as any foreigner, if a hooligan didn't like the appearance.

Though the problem has been continuing for some years, it still reoccurs everywhere once in a while. Many say that these incidents have been ignored while others say that it has been eradicated totally. But I have concluded that these kinds of incidents can be avoided, if the student follows some basic social rules: Control yourself on different provocations; cut on late night activities that force you to commute back home alone and there is nothing better than being in a good company of friends when around the city.

KENYAN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM:

After completion of 12 years of primary and secondary school, graduates have a variety of choices. If they performed well, they can go to a public college based on their financial standing and scholarship availability. Only the top performers have this option. The second choice is to attend a private college, which costs more and has fewer scholarships. The third choice is to go to a vocational school or a teacher training institution, or to join the job market.

Teacher training colleges offer a three-year program for science teachers and a two-year program for liberal arts. The primary colleges are Kenya Science Teachers College (for science teachers only) and Kenyatta and Nairobi Universities (mostly for liberal arts teacher training). All programs at these institutions offer a secondary school teacher's diploma. Training for primary teachers is handled by other agencies under the Kenya Institute of Education. Though the need for science teachers is very high, the requirements to enter such a training institution make them very selective and competitive, which make this choice a difficult one. The other teaching choice is to join a two-year liberal arts teacher training college that offers a teaching diploma in liberal arts. A secondary school graduate can also get a teaching job as an untrained teacher (UQT) that offers an opportunity to teach while pursuing training for certification. This option has been made available through continued education programs at the universities in order to meet the high demand for teachers.

There are several middle-level colleges, both public and private that offer national and international diploma awards in a wide field of professions. These are mainly located in the larger towns. There are five public universities, which mainly admit KCSE (Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education) students. In addition, there are eight private universities that mainly offer business, humanities, and other arts courses.

In my own research, I have come to learn about the Russian Higher Education system.

Higher education is under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Education of the Russian Federation, which is responsible for the accreditation and licensing of institutes of higher education and for developing and maintaining State Educational Standards. There are three levels of higher education: 1) incomplete higher education (2 years at least); 2) basic higher education (4 years) leading to the Bakalavr's degree, the first university level degree; 3) postgraduate higher education (total number of years of post-secondary education: 5-6 years or more). Institutes of higher education are authorized to award the Magistr's degree after 2 years of study or Specialist's Diploma after 1 year following upon the Bakalavr's degree (e.g. lawyer, engineer). There are two levels of doctoral degrees: Kandidat Nauk degree (the first level) and Doktor Nauk degree (the second, highest level). The following higher education reforms are under way: 1) diversification of higher education; 2) humanization; 3) decentralization of management, university autonomy; 4) creation of a non-public sector of higher education. There are 609 public Institutes of higher education and 206 accredited non-State Institutes of higher education in Russia; the Ministry of Education finances 315 public Institutes of higher education. The rest are financed by other Ministries or local authorities. There are about 3000 non-university level educational institutions - technikum, uchilische, and college.

This differs with the Kenyan system and in many other African foreign countries as well as some western countries. Where upon successful completion of high education, one is obliged to do government service for a year then further on out of will, for a Masters degree and thereafter a PhD degree.

Literature

Катрич Вероника Владимировна

Don State Technical University, Russia

ОСОБЕННОСТИ КОММУНИКАТИВНОГО ПОВЕДЕНИЯ ФРАНЦУЗОВ И РУССКИХ

The knowledge of features of communicative behavior plays important role in the intercultural interaction. Especially it is very important in business partnership with representatives of different countries. In this article communicative distinctions between French and Russian people are described, they are due to national traditions and patterns.

Key words: Communicative behavior, national patterns, dialogue, intercultural interaction, myths, politeness, verbal and non-verbal communication, humor, linguistic studies.

Каждый язык национально специфичен. В каждом языке можно обнаружить легко узнаваемые черты народа, говорящего на нём. Именно язык формирует как своего носителя, так и его национальный характер, и коммуникативное поведение.

Коммуникативное поведение французов, то есть особенности их общения, заметно отличаются от коммуникативного поведения русских. Национальные отличия проявляются в частности, в культуре общения. Для того чтобы, во время общение с французами не попасть в неловкое положение, необходимо изучить отличия в коммуникативном поведении, так как знание норм национального коммуникативного поведения значительно облегчает общение, помогает избежать взаимного непонимания, которое может возникнуть в межкультурном общении из-за несовпадения тех или иных культурных норм.

Для межкультурного общения релевантным является взаимное действие двух видов компетенции коммуниканта: языковой и коммуникативно-поведенческой. Незнание особенностей коммуникативного поведения жителей страны изучаемого языка, подверженность предрассудкам и мифам, отсутствие открытости, толерантности, готовности увидеть иной способ миропонимания весьма часто ведут к коммуникативным сбоям и провалам.

Восприятие коммуниканта из иноязычной среды происходит под влиянием мифологии семиотической границы. Стереотип француза в русскоязычной лингвокультуре включает представления о французском языке и коммуникативном поведении его носителей. Французский язык считается «самым красивым» (более 50% ответов респондентов), он предназначен «для объяснения в любви», «для комплиментов», «для того чтобы говорить красиво». Характерные черты французов: вежливость (галантность), чувство юмора, эмоциональность (даже любвеобильность) и т.п. Разумеется, черты гетеростереотипа французской нации относительны и выявляются именно в ситуации культурного контраста (межкультурной коммуникации). Рассмотрим некоторые из стереотипических представлений о коммуникативном поведении французов.

1. Особая вежливость французов. Считается, что подчеркнутая вежливость французов весьма часто сочетается с сопереживанием. Особенности лексико-грамматического выражения вежливости прослеживаются как в письменной, так и в устной речи.

В оформлении начала и конца писем французам свойственна витиеватость. Так, при обращении к ответственному лицу, чиновнику, особенно если в письме содержится какая-то просьба, французы используют скрытое подчеркивание значимости субординации между пишущим и адресатом, занимающим более высокое положение:

Je me permets de madresser directement à vous//Я позволяю себе обратиться непосредственно к вам (вместо русского извините за беспокойство).

Или в конце письма:

Veuillez agréerMadame, Monsieur, lexpression de mes sentiments les plus distingués // Примите заверения в моем самом искреннем уважении (вместо короткого русского с уважением).

При входе во французскую гостиницу вас поспешат поприветствовать. В России первым обычно здоровается входящий. Во Франции дежурный администратор в гостинице или продавец магазина, как правило, здоровается с посетителем первым, добавляя Vous désirez, Madame (Мопsier)? // Что Вам угодно, мадам (господин)? Опережающее спасибо в магазине или гостинице звучит не от клиента, а от служащего, что можно трактовать как благодарность за услугу, которой клиент воспользовался. Слова спасибо, пожалуйста, извините, будьте любезны звучат чаще, чем в подобных ситуациях в России. А окончание контакта словами до свидания служащий гостиницы или магазина как бы подчёркивает переход к установлению нового контакта.

Во французской сфере обслуживания нельзя услышать, как в России: не нравится — уходите (идите отсюда).

Во Франции, если клиент чем-то не удовлетворен, его стараются удержать в контакте:

Avez la bonté de... Veuillez, s il vous plаit de.../I Будьmе любезны... Не соблаговолите ли...

В общении с клиентом там трудно обнаружить слово non — нет. Служащий подчеркнет вербально (désolé // огорчен; dommage, malheureusement // к сожалению) и невербально (разведение рук, вытягивание губ) свое сопереживание по поводу несостоявшейся покупки или неподходящего по тем или иным причинам гостиничного номера.

Грамматическая форма Conditionnel présent дипломатично обеспечивает выражение вежливого предложения, усиливающегося иногда отрицательными частицами (ne voudriez-vous pas// не хотели бы вы...) или глаголом в Imparfait с союзом si (Si nous allions ап théatre? //А не пойти ли нам в театр?), т.е. француз настаивает на чем-то не «в лоб». В данном случае использование Futur simple изъявительного наклонения совершенно исключено, так как это приравнивается французами к диктату.

Можно сравнить следующие высказывания:

Vous iriez еп mission? // Вы, вероятно, отправитесь в командировку? Vous irez еп mission? //Вы отправитесь (обязательно) в командпровку? (попробуйте не отправиться!)

2. Эмоциональность французов. Французы всегда эмоциональны. В общении их красноречивая мимика и жестикуляция гармонично дополняют устное высказывание. Если вы спросите у русского, как пройти на вокзал или к какому-то театру, вам кратко или подробно объяснят дорогу, по которой следует двигаться. Причём вербальное (словесное) оформление коммуникативного контакта далеко не всегда будет сопровождаться жестикуляцией. У французов наоборот. Герои видеосюжета учебной серии «Добро пожаловать во Францию» спрашивают у выхода из метро у одной дамы, как пройти на ярмарку. Любезно отвечая на вопрос, она жестикуляцией кисти руки указывает путь следования к ярмарке. Каждое слово поддержано жестом правой руки:

ФРАГМЕНТ ФРАЗЫ

НЕВЕРБАЛЬНЫЕ СРЕДСТВА

Вы идете прямо...

Круговое движение кистью пальцами вниз

после большой площади…

Круговое движение кистью пальцами вниз

первая улица на лево…

Отогнутый на 90о палец кисти, сжатой в кулак

затем вторая на право…

Два пальца кисти (указательный и средний) показывают на право

и потом прямо…

Кисть вытянутой руки показывает в указанном направлении


В русском варианте подобного объяснения не наблюдалось бы — ни такой динамики движений пальцев, ни такой экспрессии.

Совершенно безудержное эмоциональное возбуждение охватывает французов при виде миловидной девушки или женщины.

Действительно, у французов женщина виновна во всём (cherchez 1а femme), если она может буквально парализовать деятельность мужчин, приковав их внимание к себе. Вспомните киногероев Луи де Финеса, Жерара Депардье, Пьера Ришара, чья бурная жестикуляционно-мимическая реакция при появлении представительниц прекрасного пола удивительно выразительна. Нам могут возразить, что это — кино. Но разве сценарист с режиссёром не подчёркивают игрой артистов особенности коммуникативного поведения своих героев?

Было бы преувеличением заявить, что французы более вежливы, чем, например, русские. В рамках каждой коммуникативной культуры есть своя шкала вежливости, своя градация экспрессивности и т.п

И еще несколько различий между французами и русскими. Во Франции приглашать в гости принято заранее, за несколько дней, но можно и за один день, если между людьми неофициальные отношения.

Дружеская беседа французов мало чем отличается от беседы русских: можно касаться практически любой темы, вплоть до вероисповедания, налогов и т.д.

Если французу предстоит деловой разговор, он сразу начнет его, без предисловий.

Как это ни покажется странным, богатые французы в повседневной жизни одеваются скромно, бедные — ярче.

Дистанция общения между французами отличается от дистанции между русскими людьми — она несколько больше. Во Франции, если один человек нечаянно коснулся другого, он обязательно извинится, так как понимает, что вторгся в чужое личное пространство. Хотя речь, конечно, не идет о часах «пик», когда в метро или автобусе, как в России, все настолько плотно утрамбованы, что просто не до «политесов».

Французы любят высмеивать богатых и знатных, с удовольствием смеются над карикатурами на богатых.

Французы не очень любят исповедоваться, говорить о себе, разве что с самыми близкими друзьями.

Исследование коммуникативного поведения призвано внести существенный вклад в понимание между французами и русскими. Специалист по иностранным языкам, межкультурной коммуникации и переводу не может считаться полностью сформировавшимся, если его языковые знания и навыки не дополняются знанием коммуникативного поведения и умением его правильно интерпретировать в соответствующих ситуациях.

Список использованной литературы

1. Розенфельд Я.В., Кашкин В.Б. Некоторые особенности коммуникативного поведения французов [Текст]/ Я.В. Розенфельд, В.Б. Кашкин. Взаимопонимание в диалоге культур: условия успешности. часть2. Воронеж:ВГУ, 2004-с.49-64.

2. Стернина С.Г. Французское и русское коммуникативное поведение: взгляд французов, работавших в России [Текст]/С.Г. Стернина.

3.Седых А.П. Языковая личность и этнос (национально-культурныеособенности коммуникативного поведения русских и французов): монография. [Текст]/Седых А.П.-М: Спутник, 2004-268с.

4.Льюис Р.Деловые культуры в международном бизнесе [Текст]/.-М.: Дело, 2001-287с.

Ле Чунг Киен, Бедный Дмитрий

Don State Technical University

HIGH-TORQUE POSITIONAL HYDRAULIC GEAR OF HIGH OPERATION SPEED AND ACCURACY.

The paper considers the high-torque positional hydraulic gear of high operation speed and accuracy applying to rotary-deviding machines of manufacturing equipment.

Key words: high-torque positional hydraulic gear, positioning, operation speed, accuracy, rotary, distributor, rotary-deviding machine.

  • The characteristic modern technology trends are the intensification of machines and mechanisms operations. Under the circumstances effective trend is advanced technology invention on basis of innovative approaches (it is effective to create advanced technology on basis of innovative approaches).

  • Having certain advantages, hydraulic gear makes it possible to create such machines and mechanisms that are the simplest and the most effective.

  • The high-torque positional hydraulic gear with optimal control of motion path that provide maximal operation speed by given accuracy of positioning.

  • The positioning of the control object provides rotary hydro distributor that is connected kinematically with control object movements and has the functions of shift master, position sensor and control device. When control object achieves destination orifices of distributor that forms hydraulic control signals are overlapped.

  • The usage of high-torque hydro mechanical control brake makes it possible to exclude transmission gear between the control object and hydro motor thereby it is achieved high dynamic gear characteristics and mass and overall gear characteristics are improved.

  • Preliminary study of such gear on a special stand confirms its operating capacity by accuracy hydromotor shift positioning 8-10 angular minutes.

  • On basis of resulting total positional hydraulic gear for ratary-deviding machine is being developed.

Literature

A.M. AL-QUDAH, V.S. SIDORENKO, V.I. GRISHENKO. Positioning process modeling of automated manufacturing equipment rotary-divided mechanisms with hydraulic lines/ Vestnik DSTU, 2008. Т.8. №4(39)

Логвинов Павел Викторович

Don State Technical University, Russia

PRESSURIZED HYDRAULIC VALVES

The article is focused on description of the work of the pressurized hydraulic valves and, as a consequence, on the ways of modification and modernization of this type of valves and their future application.

Key words: pressurized hydraulic valves, the first stage, second stage, features, upgrades, pump.

Scheme of the basic sample pressurized hydraulic valves NG16-50-16 is better than valve type 1KR-10 (BG52-10) and G52-10 due to the fact that it is different using a hydraulically balanced main valve of the second cascade, which enhances the dynamic stability of , except slide valve overlap and lock the second stage in a conical ground glass bevel, which increases the tightness, and using movable sleeve, throttle (auxiliary valve), which increases sensitivity.

Figure 1 - Pressure hydrovalves NY 16-50-16 with improved characteristics.

Also, the advantages of pressurized hydraulic valves NG16-50-16 over the analogs can be attributed to weight and size characteristics. Because the mass of similar devices is the value of more than 4 kg, while the mass of the valve no more than 2 kg.

However, for the base NG16-50-16 of the braking process of the second stage valve is not optimized. This is due to the fact that for this circuit valve is difficult to obtain both optimal modes of operation when opening and lowering of the main valve at the optimum braking conditions. Therefore, in valves with throttle of constant cross section is difficult to eliminate the overload of the system at the stages ("GERD") and a decrease in pressure below the pressure setting ("Dam").

The negative side of the base NG16-50-16 is a high value of internal leaks. In light of the above, there is a need to modernize the base of the sample pressurized hydraulic valves. The strategy of solving technical problems on the program graduate.

Today's time dictates its own rules. Development of a new generation of agricultural machinery requires a high combined units. It is in these units are used in safety mechanisms to ensure stable operation under all loading in the hydraulic drive. But all in need of modernization. Therefore, before to improve the whole system, it is necessary to improve all components of the system separately. Taking the theme of master's thesis on slam-relief valve, I hope by improving one component to improve performance of the drive.

Hydraulic actuator at a given time - a very common system in which the responsible role played by safety devices, responsible for the protection of the system from excessive pressure. Without them, most drives can not do because they play a very important role.

Formulation and identification of major problems at the stage of technical development of the valve - to achieve effective mode of slam-relief valve NY - 16-50-16, which would have worked in mobile machines with the required performance characteristics, as well as taking into account the characteristics of the degree of reliability for the efficient operation of the entire hydraulic system.

Search solution is based on the review and selection of a rational structure and parameters of the mechanisms of dynamic characteristics of the study, a mathematical model, the study of the parameters, identify those parameters that are rationally affect the qualitative components of the valve device.

Description of the scheme hydrovalves NY 16-50-16.

Figure 2 - hydraulic valves.

Figure 2 shows a diagram of the valve of indirect action, which is used as a safety element to protect hydraulic system from pressure surges above the set pressure and, as a device that ensures full discharge of the pump. The operating principle of the valve is as follows.

In the presence of the specified pressure in the hydraulic control valve 1 is pressed against the spring 2 to the saddle, or skips the liquid to drain. In the first case, the pressure PN in the control cavity equal to the pressure Pc in the cart of the main valve. In the second case, the pressure Pc more pressure PN. The pressure difference arises from the fact that under the open control valve for supplying fluid from flowing through the throttle 5. The pressure at which the main valve starts to move, depends on the pre-tension springs 2,4 and regulated by changing the tension springs 2 control valve. Due to its small displacement control valve pressure is maintained close to the value of the pressure at which it opens.

Literature:

1. Башта Т.М. Ермаков В.В., Зайченко И.З., Хаймович Е.М., Объемные гидравлические привороды. М. «Машиностроение», 1967, 627 стр.

2. Брон Л.С., Тартаровский Ж.Э. Гидравлический привод агрегатных станков и автоматических линий. М. «Машиностроение», 1967, 355 стр.

3. Бутько В.С. Анализ работы предохранительного клапана и гидросистемы с использованием электронно-счетной машины. «Гидропривод и гидропневмоавтоматика», вып. 4. Киев, «Техника», 1968, стр. 91-96.

Лыкова Ирина Викторовна

Don State Technical University
                                                                                                                        
LES FEMMES –CADRES EN FRANCE

     The high level of the women’s activity is well-known. The latest research carried out in the field of social psychology and management suggests that women managers have a positive impact upon the economic results of the business. However they have to face some particular problems due to the complexity of combining the roles of the family carer and their professional role.

Key words: women managers, two career families, financial results, promotion, salaries, professional activity, glass ceiling, stereotypes, career interruption.

1.L’activité professionnelle des femmes.

Avant la révolution industrielle, les femmes actives étaient essentiellement des agri-cultrices, participant à la production, ou employées de maison (bonnes), parfois ouvrières agricoles de façon saisonnière. Au cours du XIX siècle, le developpement de l’industrie entraine une croissance des besoins en main d’oeuvre, notamment non qualifiée, pour travailler dans les manufactures recemment apparues.
L'entrée des femmes dans le monde du travail ne s'est pas operée sans difficulté. Ce sont tout particulièrement les jeunes femmes qui connaissent des problèmes d'insertion, en dépit des bons niveaux de formation attaints. Notamment, une faible diversification des orientations professionnelles, associée  à une concentration des femmes dans certains emplois, se traduit par de moindres marges de manoeuvre au niveau de leurs trajectoires et carrières professionnelles. Une consequence en est la persistence de taux do chômage plus élévés que celui de leurs honologues masculins. Un autre facteur des ditticultés d'insertion professionnelle des femmes reside dans la forme d'emploi à laquelle elles accédent. Nombreuses sont celles qui n'ont accès qu'a des emplois à  temps partiel.
Depuis la seconde moitié du XIXe siècle, le travail des femmes s’est exercé de plus en plus hors du cadre familial et le salariat est devenu une réalité.

La fin du baby boom (1965) coincide avec la "reprise de l'activité feminine. L'activité devient alors pour les femmes un moyen d'affirmer un statut social en rupture avec celui que leur reservait la société traditionnelle, en même temps qu'elle leur donne des moyens d'existence indépendants de ceux de leur conjoint. Quand même la plupart des femmes sont engagées dans l’activité tels que l’enseignement, la medecine et le secrétariat. En France, alors que les femmes représentent plus de 63 % des effectifs, seulement 34 % sont cadres[1].

2. Les femmes cadres

Plusieurs études ont démontré une corrélation entre le taux d'encadrement féminin des sociétés et leurs performances économiques. Ce constat est né aux Etats-Unis dans les années 1970, grâce aux travaux de nombreux chercheurs et sociologues. Pour la France, il a fallu attendre l'étude du cabinet McKinsey & Company de 2007 (Women Matter), mais surtout les recherches de Michel Ferrary, chercheur affilié à la Skema Business School de Lille. "Les entreprises les plus féminisées sont plus rentables, ont une meilleure productivité et créent davantage d'emplois", assure le chercheur. Chez Renault, ou l'encadrement est plus féminisé que chez Peugeot (23 % contre 18,6 %), les

performances économiques affichent une meilleure santé : +11% de croissance, contre +4%, et une productivité de 295 365 euros, contre 271 335 euros [3]. La présence des femmes cadres est désormais bien établie et la féminisation de l'emploi cadre devrait se poursuivre dans les prochaines années". Tel était l'un des constats optimistes établis par une étude de l'Apec publiée en mars 2005. Près de 520 000 femmes cadres travaillent dans le secteur privé contre 1 260 000 hommes. Des effectifs qui ont doublé en trente ans. Si les femmes représentent aujourd'hui 30% des cadres, l'égalité professionnelle n'est toujours pas à l'ordre du jour. 

Les inégalités professionnelles. À formation identique, les femmes cadres ne se voient pas offrir les mêmes opportunités de carrière que leurs honologues masculins. Trois-quarts d'entre elles occupent des postes dans des activités à dominante administrative ou tertiaire (communication, ressources humaines, administration, gestion). Si on les trouve plus fréquemment dans des postes d'encadrement d'équipe, elles restent très minoritaires dans les postes de management et de direction. Plus on grimpe dans l'organigramme et moins on trouve de femmes : seulement 10 % des dirigeants d'entreprises et moins de 5 % des membres des conseils d'administration. L'inégalité s'affiche également sur le bulletin de paye. Le salaire des femmes cadres est inférieur de 21% à celui des hommes ayant ce même statut. Toutes ces inégalités sont imputables à la fois aux modes de fonctionnement des entreprises et aux femmes elles-mêmes.

Bébé ou boulot ? "La trentaine reste la période-clé des évolutions de carrière en entreprise. Or cet âge est actuellement celui où la plupart des femmes deviennent mères. Elles sont donc souvent moins disponibles, et en tout cas moins disposées à consacrer tout leur temps et toute leur énergie à leur entreprise, même si l'écrasante majorité des femmes cadres ne s'arrête de travailler que le temps du congé de maternité légal", note l'Apec. Un choix que de nombreux responsables considèrent encore comme "un problème". De fait, les stéréotypes ont la vie dure dans l'entreprise. Les femmes cadres apparaissent aux yeux des patrons comme étant moins disponibles, moins mobiles et moins impliquées. De leur côté, les femmes ont tendance à opter pour des cursus de formation moins rentables, moins valorisants aux yeux des recruteurs. Majoritaires à l'université (59 %), les filles sont encore trop peu nombreuses à s'inscrire dans les écoles d'ingénieurs. Enfin, la gente féminine a moins d'attrait pour le pouvoir préférant avant tout concilier vie professionnelle et vie familiale [ 5] .

Créé fin 2004 par le gouvernement, le Label Egalité est décerné aux entreprises qui agissent pour l'égalité entre les hommes et les femmes. Début 2007, 23 entreprises l'avaient obtenu. Jusqu'à présent, seuls de grands groupes tels Axa, EADS, La Poste ou Orange ont engagé une telle démarche. Il est vrai que l'obtention du label repose sur un processus de certification assez lourd.

Sans être labellisées, certaines entreprises s'emparent aussi du sujet de l'égalité. C'est le cas de la Macif qui a lancé le programme "Mutu'Elles" afin de favoriser l'accession des femmes aux postes d'encadrement. Pour accroître cette proportion, la Macif a engagé diverses actions : formations des recruteurs et des gestionnaires de carrière pour combattre les stéréotypes, formations à l'affirmation de soi dédiées aux femmes, coaching, maintien du lien avec l'entreprise lors d'absences prolongées.

La création de réseaux de femmes au sein même des entreprises peut être aussi un levier pour agir . IBM a lancé le groupe "Elles" composé de 250 femmes. Une initiative qui a conduit à la mise en place d'un système de parrainage des femmes qui ont pris un congé de maternité ou sabbatique, ou au coaching et au mentoring pour les femmes souhaitant progresser professionnellement. Air Liquide dispose également d'un réseau regroupant des femmes et des hommes : "O'Pluriel" travaille notamment sur les stéréotypes et la sensibilisation des managers à l'enjeu de la mixité. "Accent sur Elles", réseau de femmes cadres d'Accenture, organise des petits-déjeuners accueillant les salariées de l'entreprise pour échanger leurs expériences et rencontrer des chercheurs, des formateurs ou des coachs. Autant d'exemples qui montrent que les femmes doivent être actrices de leur vie professionnelle, car le chemin de l'égalité dans l'entreprise est encore long [4].

Chez les cadres, les femmes, qui connaissent toujours des écarts de responsabilité et de rémunération importants avec les hommes, semblent se heurter à un "plafond de verre" à partir de 35 ans, selon une étude de l'Association pour l'emploi des cadres (Apec), publiée mardi.

"Alors qu'avant 35 ans, elles occupent des postes proches en termes de responsabilité, elles sont moins nombreuses que les hommes, en proportion, à avoir ensuite la possibilité de s'élever dans la hiérarchie ou à prendre des postes d'envergure plus importante (ce phénomène est aussi appelé le +plafond de verre+)", note l'Apec dans cette étude, basée sur un questionnaire proposé à 12.739 cadres en février 2010.

Mais c'est principalement après 40 ans que les inégalités quant aux responsabilités exercées se creusent, indique aussi l'Apec.

Si la part des femmes parmi les cadres a progressé de 23% il y a vingt ans à 34% aujourd'hui, seules 11% d'entre elles occupent un poste à "forte responsabilité" (direction générale ou d'un département ou d'une entité) contre 23% de leurs homologues masculins.

Les conséquences de ces écarts de carrière sont visibles sur les salaires. La rémunération annuelle brute médiane des femmes s'élève à 43.000 euros, soit 7.000 euros de moins que les hommes. Et les différences s'accroissent avec l'âge, surtout après 40 ans.

Les causes quant à elles tiennent en partie aux formations initiales avec une proportion deux fois plus élevée de cadres masculins que féminins diplômés d'écoles d'ingénieurs ou en informatique, des filières présentant des taux d'emploi nettement supérieurs aux diplômes d'Universités.

La proportion de femmes cadres dotées d'un diplôme de gestion, ressources humaines ou de sciences humaines, lettres ou droit, est elle deux à trois fois plus élevée que chez les hommes.

Mais deux facteurs jouent énormément contre la promotion des femmes cadres: "les interruptions de carrière et une pratique du temps partiel plus fréquentes" liées à la famille, même si elles "ont moins d'enfants que les hommes cadres et que les femmes en général".

Car, à l'inverse, "le niveau de responsabilité augmente chez les hommes en fonction du nombre d'enfants".

Les femmes sans enfant sont sur-représentées chez les cadres: 23% des 45 ans ou plus alors que "dans la population française seule une femme sur dix n'a pas d'enfant"[6].

3.Comment réussir à deux.
En 1998, les trois quarts des couples de 30 à 54 comptent deux actifs", indique la sociologue Catherine Marry, chercheuse au CNRS et  specialiste des parcours professionnels.
A chacun son job, ses ambitions, ses projets. Car leur vie, souvent, ressemble à un exercise d’équilibriste sur le fit du quotidien. Fascinant et excitant. Parce que les femmes font de brillantes études. Parce qu’elles ne veulent plus, pour la plupart, être exclusivement abonnées aux couches-clottes et au balai-brosse. Parce que les entreprises ont besoin d’elles, aussi. Quant aux hommes, « ils ne  veulent plus d’épouses boniches et potiches », estime Jean-Claude Kaufmann, sociologue et specialiste du couple, auteur de La Femme seule et le Prince charmant.

PORTRAIT-ROBOT DE LA FEMME IDEALE
    S'ils devaient choisir, les hommes prefereraient une femme intelligente a une femme belle (69/24 %), une femme au foyer a une superwoman (72/18 %),  une femme active a une femme passive (87/6 %), , une femme forte a une femme fragile (68/22 %), une bonne cuisiniere a une intellectuelle (68/23 %), une femme mure a une jeune (54/35 %).
    Les principaux reproches que les hommes adressent aux femmes: etre envahissantes (33 %), infideles (30 %), s'occuper de moins en moins des  hommes (26 %), avoir de moins en moins besoin des hommes (24 %)[2].

Mener sa vie professionnelle en,  double, sans négliger ses enfants et son couple, est devenu un sport national. Dans cette discipline le tandem que constituent Laurence Danon, présidente du directoire du Printemps, et son mari, Pierre, président de British Telecom Retail, 46 ans chacun, mériterait une médaille. « C’était une évidence pour nous qu’après nos etudes longues et difficiles, nous allions faire carrière de front, raconte Laurence, normalienne, ingénieur des Mines, agrégée de sciences physiques et titulaire d’un DEA de chémie organique. Notre préoccupation essentielle a toujours été de reussir à concilier la vie avec nos enfants et notre parcours professionnel.» Faire carrière a deux a toujours un prix. Elevé, souvent. Exorbitant, parfois.
Les hommes n’y a pas si longtemps, ils se plaignaient que leurs compagnes s’occupaient trop des enfants. Désormais, ils trouvent qu’elles travaillent trop. Ralent contre les dossiers rapportés à la maison, le week-end. S’énervent contre les appels profissionnels à l’heure du dîner.
Pas facile de trouver un équilibre pour ces couples qui ne veulent rien sacrifier, ni la famille ni le boulot. « L’appui que s’apportent mutuellement les conjoints est central pour maintenir un système de double carrière », affirme Helène Challiol, chercheuse au Laboretoire interdisciplinaire de recherche sur les resources humaines et l’emploi, à Toulouse, dont la thèse explore les décisions de mutation géographique des couples. « Mieux vaut avoir des envies professionnelles que des plans de carrière trop précis. Et savoir saisir les occasions », estime Laurence Dors.

Références

1. Affilé B., Gentil C., Rimbert F..Les grands questions de l’économie contemporaine [Text]./ B. Affilé, C.Gentil, F.France  Rimbert:letudiant.fr]-2010, 167p.

2. Elle magazine, avril 1989
3. Froger, Valérie. Les femmes, moteur de la performance économique [texte]? LEXPRESS.fr publié le 08/03/2011 www.l’express.fr

4. Guiulamila J. , Levet P. De l’égalité à la diversité : les hommes, les femmes, les entreprises[texte].Ed. : Lab’ho, obserbatoire des hommes et des organiations, 2006 www.labho.fr

5. http://emploi.france5.fr/job/carriere/femme/28749011-fr.php

6./actualite/depeche/afp/491/736033/les_femmes_cadres_se_heurtent_a_un_plafond_de_verre_a_partir_de_35_ans.shtml07 mars 2011, 00h06

Лыкова Ирина Викторовна

Don State Technical University, Russia

Russia’s accession to the WTO: prospects and achievement

Today Russia’s accession to World Trade Organization is one of important question. The WTO is played significant role in development of the international trade which for 60 years tried to work out the fundamentalsof a future world trade basimg on principles of observance of the Agreement’s general regulation. But the process of Russian accession is still going on.

Key words: accession, liberalize, international trade, establishment, Working Group, tariff proposal, condition, bilateral negotiation, benefit, improvement.

  1. The establishment of the WTO

The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an organization that intends to supervise and liberalize international trade. The organization officially commenced on January 1, 1995 under the Marrekech Agreement, replacing the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), which commenced in 1948.

There are 153 member:(as we can see on the map the countries are highlighted in green)

And in the nearest future this number will increase. Decisions are made by the entire membership, typically by consensus, which is an additional stimulus for stronger consent within the WTO. The almost every nation aspiring to create a modern and effective economy and to participate in the world trade equally strives for WTO membership. Russia is not an exception.

  1. Main stages of Russia’s WTO accession negotiations

As we know process of Russian WTO accession is not completed. We had more than 30 meetings. I want to focus the most essential outcomes which happened :

  • In 1995 was the first round of negotiations between the Russian delegation and the WTO's Working Group on Russia took place in Geneva. The focus of the meeting was the “Memorandum on Foreign Trade Regime”,

  • In 1998 Russia finalized its tariff proposals , after the presentation in 1998, Russia initial offers on market access of goods and the level of support to agriculture, started on a bilateral level.

  • In 1999 Russia presented to the Working Group Members its proposals regarding domestic services market access

  • since 2000, negotiations were to cover all aspects of the accession process.

The process of Russian is still going on. Russia is getting ever closer to accession. expected that Russia finish its longtime bid to join the World Trade Organization in this year or the next.

The WTO membership offers a range of benefits. Enjoying these benefits is, pragmatically, the goal of joining the WTO. By acceding to the WTO Russia pursues the following goals:

  1. Improvement of existing conditions for access of Russian products to foreign markets and provision of non-discriminatory treatment for Russian exporters;

  2. Access to the international dispute settlement mechanism;

  3. Creation of a more favorable climate for foreign investments as a result of legal system change in accordance with the WTO standards;

  4. Expansion of opportunities for Russian investors in the WTO member-countries, particularly, in the banking area;

  5. Creation of conditions for growth of domestic production’ quality and competitiveness as a result of increased flows of foreign goods, services and investments to the Russian market;

  6. Participation in negotiations of the international trade agreements taking into account national interests;

  7. Improvement of the image of Russia as a competent international trade participant.

  1. The objectives of the accession negotiations

The objective of the accession negotiations is to achieve the most favorable conditions for Russia joining the WTO, that is the best balance possible between the benefits of accession and the concessions in forms:

tariffs reduction

domestic market opening.

According to German Gref, The Minister of Economic Development and Trade, the balance of rights and obligations of Russia during its accession to the WTO should contribute to its economic growth and not vice versa.

General conclusions show that accession to the WTO won’t provoke systemic problems in any sector of Russian economy. And this is the most important thing. Some enterprises, that are no longer competitive, may face problems in the short run. However, this factor will influence insignificantly the growth rate of the economy and its individual industries. This influence is often not higher than the value of statistical error. Other factors, such as exchange rates fluctuations, global economic environment and investment activity will affect Russian economy to a much greater extent. All experts agree that in the long run Russia's membership in the WTO will have a positive impact on Russian economic growth, promoting trade and investment, encouraging competition on the domestic market, creating a clear international legal framework in the field of foreign trade regulation.

Literature

1. /russia

2.

3. /wiki/WTO

Мартыненко Андрей Владимирович

Don State Technical University

ELECTROHYDRAULIC STEPPER ACTUATOR

The article deals with the principles of work of electrohydraulic stepper actuator and puts forward some ways of its improvement.

Key words: Hydraulicdrive, hydrequipment, performance,

electrohydraulic stepper actuator, machine-tool construction, hydraulic power, stepper motor control unit, rotary-dividingtable

The main directions of development of the domestic fixed hydrodrive are to improve energy and operational characteristics of hydraulic equipment, improve its performance, expand Repeating the application of the step and proportional remote control, providing connection of modern electronic systems with hydraulic units.

Considered electrohydraulic stepper drive with optimal control and the trajectory of providing maximum performance and positioning accuracy.

Electro-stepper drives appeared in the late 50's in the Soviet Union and is now widely used in domestic and foreign machine tool for moving working parts of machine tools or other machines with numerical control. In these drives an electric stepper motor of low power input shaft rotates the hydraulic torque multiplier, and the output shaft of the last repetition, with slight mistake all the traffic input shaft, developing a torque sufficient to move the working parts of machine tools. Strengthening the torque provided by the energy-flow of oil supplied to the hydraulic booster.

Feature of a stepper motor is pulsed movement, which imposes certain requirements on the mechanical part of the circuitry. These requirements are a high natural frequency, damping the presence and absence of gaps.

One priimuschest electrohydraulic stepper motor - stepper motor is working with hydraulic little affected by fluctuations in power supply systems of external conditions and fluctuations in workload.


Pic.1 Scheme of electrohydraulic stepper motor rotary motion

Stepper motor control unit is a cabinet with top exit cable, similar to the interpolator. The closet in the upper part is a panel with output connectors for connection of cables with the machine, as well as through-capacitors, which serves the three-phase power to below the power strip. At the bottom of the cabinet rack control unit stepper motor is a transformer and rectifier power supply to 48 V. Units adjusting resistors are mounted on the tailgate, they are separated from the cabinet a special heat-insulating shield. The front door is installed remote from which you are switching on and off the entire device. Ventilation of the cabinet by the same block interpolator.

Preliminary studies of this drive on a special stand showed a higher positioning accuracy and high speed of working bodies of the drive. Based on the results developed hydraulic feed rotary dividing table.

Мороз Елена Ивановна

Don State Technical University

RECHTSFORMEN VON UNTERNEHMEN IN DEUTSCHLAND

Im diesem Artikel ist das aktuelle Thema hervorgehoben. Im Artikel verden beschriben Formen solche wie BMW AG, Silex Technology Europe GmbH, Siegenia-Aubi KG,Schwarzkopf & Henkel Production Europe GmbH & Co. KG. Meine Artikle berichtet uber Einige große Gruppen - Einzelunternehmungen, Personengesellschaften (ohne eigene Rechtsfahigkeit, weswegen ihre Gesellschafter haften (KG) und Kapitalgesellschaften (die als eigenstandige juristische Personen selbst haften : GmbH, AG und KGaA). Außerdem uber existieren Mischformen (GmbH & Co.KG , GmbH & Co. KGaA)

Key words: Rechtsformen von Unternehmen, Kommanditgesellschaft (KG), GmbH, Aktiengesellschaft (AG), GmbH & Co.KG,GmbH & Co. KGaA.

Rechtsformen von Unternehmen können in Deutschland, von wenigen Ausnahmen abgesehen, frei gewählt werden. Ausschlaggebend sind Gründungkosten, Haftungsbeschrankung, Finanzbedarf, Einflussverteilung zwischen Geschäftsfuhrung und Geldgebern, Gewinn-und-Verlust-Verteilung, die Publizitätspflicht, Steuerfragen sowie Nachfolge- und Vererbungsmoglichkeiten bzw. die Moglichkeiten des Gesellschafterwechsels. - Die zahlreichen Rechtsformen werden in grosse Gruppen eingeteilt: Einzelunternehmungen, Personengesellschaften (ohne eigene Rechtsfahigkeit, weswegen ihre Gesellschafter haften (KG) und Kapitalgesellschaften (die als eigenstandige juristische Personen selbst haften: GmbH, AG und KGaA). Außerdem existieren Mischformen (GmbH & Co.KG, GmbH & Co.KGaA.)

Ich finde dieses Theme aktuell und ich möchte ein paar Beispiele.

Das erste ist Kommanditgesellschaft.

Kommanditgesellschaft (KG)

Zusammenschluss von mindestens zwei Gesellschaftern. Der eine - der Kommanditist - fungiert als Geldgeber und haftet nur bis zur Höhe seiner Einlage, während der andere - der Komplementär - als Geschäftsinhaber unbeschränkt haftet. Kommanditisten dürfen sich nicht in die Geschäftsfuhrung einmischen; sie müssen keine natürlichen Personen, sondern können auch andere Unternehmen sein. Vorteile der KG gegenüber der GmbH sind steuerliche Begünstigung,keine Publizitäts- und keine Mitbestimmungspflicht.

Und Wir sprecht uber Siegenia-Aubi KG.

SIEGENIA-AUBI KG

Die deutsche Gesellschaft «SIEGENIA-AUBI KG» ist eine der größten Produzenten des Fenster- und Türzubehörs der Systeme des Lüftens.

Der Hersteller von Fenster- und Türbeschlägen und Systemen für die Gebäude- und Lüftungstechnik stellt sich und seine Produkte und Serviceleistungen vor.

Frisches Denken und Handeln - gepaart mit der Bereitschaft zur fortlaufenden Veränderung - sind die Basis für eine verantwortungsvolle und aktive Gestaltung der Zukunft. Erklärtes Ziel von SIEGENIA-AUBI ist eine dauerhaft führende Position in einem stark umkämpften Markt.

Als Hersteller von Beschlägen, Lüftungen und Gebäudetechnik tragen sie eine hohe Verantwortung für die Sicherheit unserer Kunden. Sie können wir nur mit einem hohen, von allen Mitarbeitern gelebten Qualitätsstandard, modernsten Fertigungsanlagen und intensiven Produktkontrollen gerecht werden.

Gesellschaft mit beschränkter Haftung (GmbH) ist die in Deutschland mit rund 740 000 Firmen am weitesten verbreitete Rechtsform kleiner und mittlerer Unternehmen. Eine GmbH kann bereits von einem einzigen Gesellschafter gegründet werden. Das Stammkapital einer GmbH beträgt mindestens 25 000 Euro. Die Gesellschafter haften nicht persönlich, sondern nur mit ihrer Einlage, die unterschiedlich hoch sein kann (mindestens 100 Euro). - Die GmbH muss nicht selbständig agieren können, sie ist auch der häufigste Baustein eines Konzerns. Eine GmbH kann der Mitbestimmung unterliegen.

Der Vertreter dieser Gruppe ist Silex Technology Europe GmbH.

Betrachten Sie eines der Gesellschaft - Silex Technology Europe GmbH

SILEX TECHNOLOGY Europe GmbH

Silex Technology kann auf mehr als 30 Jahre an Erfahrung und Qualitätsarbeit zurückblicken. Neben der japanischen Unternehmenszentrale mit Sitz in Osaka und Tokio gibt es Standorte in den USA, China und Europa. Durch die SILEX-Produktvielfalt an Print-, USB- und Serial-Deviceserver ist für jeden Einsatz die passende Lösung vorhanden. Darüber hinaus zeichnet sich SILEX durch seine außerordentlichen Services aus. Für jedes seiner Qualitätsprodukte garantiert SILEX TECHNOLOGY lebenslangen Support.

Als nächstes wollen wir über ein anderes Gesellschaft sprechen – Aktiengesellschaft.

Aktiengesellschaft (AG) ist Rechtsform, die besonders für Großunternehmen geeignet ist. In Deutschland habend rund 14 000 Unterhnemen diese Rechtsform. Eine AG hat meist viele Gesellschafter (Aktionäre). Das Grundkapital beträgt mindestens 50000 Euro und ist in Aktien gestückelt, die einfach handelbar sind. Bei Neugründungen sind oft die Banken entscheidend beteiligt, weil sie die AG an die Börse bringen und die Aktien bei Käufern platzieren

Im Unkomplizierten Gesellschafterwechsel liegt ein bedeutender Vorteil der AG gegenüber der GmbH; nachteilig sind hohe Grundungs- und Verwaltungskosten.

Ein Vertreter dieser Gruppe ist Bayerische Motoren Werke AG

BMW AG (Bayerische Motoren Werke AG )

Die BMW Group ist der einzige Hersteller von Automobilen und Motorrädern weltweit, der sich mit allen Marken ausschließlich auf das Premiumsegment konzentriert.

Vorgänger von BMW waren die 1913 von Karl Rapp. Der Hauptsitz des Unternehmens befindet sich in München. .Werke befinden sich in München (Stammwerk), Dingolfing (größtes Werk), Regensburg, Außerdem existieren Werke in Kaliningrad (Russland), Kairo (Ägypten), Chennai (Indien, Eröffnung 2007), Rayong (Thailand), Malaysia und Indonesien.

Die BMW Group ist der führende Anbieter von Premium-Produkten und Premium-Dienstleistungen für individuelle Mobilität.

Die Aktivitäten der BMW Group umfassen neben dem Automobilgeschäft die Entwicklung, Produktion und Vermarktung von Motorrädern

So entstehen Fahrzeuge, die weltweit begehrt sind. Automobile und Motorräder, die immer mehr Menschen begeistern – und deren Erfolg das Unternehmen in eine neue Größenordnung führt.

Ich möchte auch Ihre Aufmerksamkeit auf die folgende Mischformen ziehen - Gesellschaft mit beschränkter Haftung & Co. Kommanditgesellschaft(GmbH & Co.KG)

Das ist eine rechliche Mischform. Wie eine KG sie (geldgebende) Kommanditisten, die nur bis zur Höhe ihrer Einlage haften. Der (geschäftsfuhrende) Komplementär ist jedoch nicht eine unbeschränkt haftende Privatperson, sondern eine GmbH, die nur bis zur Höhe ihres Stammkapitals haftet.

Im Vergleich zur GmbH ist die GmbH & Co. KG steurlich begünstigt und unterlieght auch nicht ihrer Publizitätspflicht. Eine Komplementär-GmbH unterliegt ab 2000 Beschäftigte der Mitbestimmung.

Betrachten Sie eines der Gesellschaft - Drink & Schlössers GmbH & Co. KG Walzentechnik

Drink & Schlössers GmbH & Co. KG Walzentechnik

Die Papierindustrie. Drink & Schlössers, gegründet 1922, ist ein erfahrener Hersteller hochwertiger technischer Walzen für verschiedenste Einsatzzwecke in allen relevanten Industrien.

«Seit mehr als 40 Jahren bauen wir hochwertige technische Walzen für verschiedenste Einsatzzwecke in allen erdenklichen Industrien»-saght der Direktor.

Schwarzkopf & Henkel Production Europe GmbH & Co. KG

Der Henkel-Konzern ist ein börsennotierter Konsumgüterhersteller mit Hauptsitz in Düsseldorf-Holthausen, der auf drei strategischen Geschäftsfeldern aktiv ist: „Wasch- und Reinigungsmittel“, „Kosmetik und Körperpflege“ sowie „Klebstoffe, Dichtstoffe und Oberflächentechnik“. Das Unternehmen ist weltweit vertreten. Von den rund 48.000 Mitarbeitern sind mehr als 80 Prozent außerhalb Deutschlands tätig. Damit ist das DAX-Unternehmen eines der am stärksten international ausgerichteten Unternehmen in Deutschland und zählt zu den 500 umsatzstärksten Konzernen der Welt.

GmbH & Co.KGaA ist seltene Mischform von Aktien- und Kommanditgesellschaft. Wie bei der KG stehen (geldgebende) Kommanditisten und (geschäftsfuhrende) Komplementäre nebeneinander. Eine GmbH & Co. KGaA entsteht, wenn das Kommanditkapital aus Aktien besteht (wie bei der KGaA) und der Komplementär eine GmbH ist (wie bei der GmbH & Co. KG). Oft sind die Kommanditaktionäre zugleich die Gesellschafter der Komplementär-GmbH. Gründe für die Wahl dieser Rechtsform: Finanzierung und Geschäftsfuhrung sind getrennt, die Ubertragung von Kommanditanteilen (Aktien) ist recht einfach möglich und die Haftung ist stark reduziert: Die Kommanditäktionare haften nur mit ihrem Aktienanteil, die Komplementär-GmbH nur mit ihrem Stammkapital.

Literatur

  • [Ingo Koller; Wulf-Henning Roth; Winfried Morck, München, 2005.]

  • []

  • []

  • [Klein-Blenkers, Friedrich: Rechtsformen der Unternehmen, C.F. Müller, Heidelberg.]

Муругов Иван Евгеньевич

Don State Technical University, Russia

THE NEW MULTICULTURALISM IN THE UNITED STATES

The article is aimed at the main problems introducing nation’s alteration to the minority boom, focusing on recent USA immigrants, determining factors of ethnic groups’ prosperity and struggle in their new country

Key words: migration, ethnic mix, minority, population, urban agglomerations, birth rates

Human migration is one of the most important problems in population studies and is viewed not only as a simple physical movement of people but also as a complex social process that affects many aspects of socioeconomic life. Migration has played an important role in history. It is associated with settlement, economic use of the land, development of productive forces, education, and the mixing of races, languages, and peoples. There are a number of different aspects of migration. Its character, structure, and consequences are studied by sciences such as demography, economics, geography, sociology, statistics, and ethnology. Research on migration is applicable to national economic and regional planning and to the use of labor resources.

The population of the United States has always been a great ethnic mix. In the past, the United States was commonly referred to as a melting pot. Today, many people call it a salad bowl.

Blacks, Hispanics, Asians and Native Americans aren't expected to make up more than half of the USA's population until after 2050, although minorities already account for more than half the populations of Hawaii and New Mexico.

The nation's population will reach 325.9 million in 2020, up 25% from 260.7 million now. There will be 166 million women, making up 50.9%, and 159.9 million men. Whites still will make up the larg­est number of Americans, though they will not be as big a percentage as they are now. The white population, though numbering 254.8 million, will shrink from today's 83.3% to 78.2% in 2020.

Rapid immigration from Latin American and high birth rates mean Hispanics will overtake blacks, becom­ing the nation's largest minority group by the year 2011. By 2020, there are expected to be 51.2 million Hispanics, or 15.7% of the population, up from 9.7%. Now Blacks will be the second largest minority at 45.4 million, or 13.9%, up from 12.5%.Asians and Pacific Islanders will have the fastest growth of any group, rising to 22.6 million, or 6.9%, from 3.4%.

Native Americans will increase their share of the population, from .8% to .9%, or 3.1 million people. The report also found that New York, already falling to third place this year as Texas becomes the second-largest state, will take another hit in 2018, when Florida bumps up to No. 3, pushing the Empire State into fourth place.

California will remain the largest state, with 14.7% of the population in 2020, compared with 12.2% today. More than half of California's growth will come from immigration, the rest from an excess of births over deaths. California is the major magnet for immigration from overseas, attracting almost 40% of immigrants. But the Golden State isn't nearly as popular with people already in the USA. The Census Bureau expects Cali­fornia to have a net loss of more than 4 million residents between 1993 and 2020.

Nearly 20 million people in the USA were foreign born. The study says: Euro­pean immigrants are less likely to have a college education than immigrants from Asia, South America or Africa. Europeans have higher household incomes than the other groups. Highly educated immigrant groups and those commonly in managerial and pro­fessional jobs have high incomes. But the number of people in a household has a big effect, too. Filipino immigrants, for example, have the second-highest median house­hold income—$45,419—of the groups surveyed. Immigrant groups with the highest poverty rates tend to be mainly recent arrivals, and many—including Laotians and Cambodians, the groups with the highest poverty rates—are also refu­gees who fled with little wealth.

Education reflects the quality and length of schooling in coun­tries immigrants come from. But it also says something about who is able to immigrate from a particular place.

To crown it all, we may come to the following conclusion:

  1. Various ethnic groups share a common national culture but also keep their individual cultural identities.

  2. The country's population is on its way to becoming a majority of minorities.

  3. A recent Census Bureau report predicts that, by about the year 2050, the nation's various ethnic minorities added together will total more than the number of white, non-Hispanics.

  4. Working people make seasonal moves in search of agricultural work in rural areas and jobs in cities. In the USA the “centuries-long” settlement of the western and southwestern states is continuing, seasonal migrations of farm workers is increasing, Negroes continue to move from the “black belt” to the north, and increasingly, the population is drawn to the large cities and urban agglomerations.

  5. Two factors are causing this change—increasing Asian and Hispanic immigration and high birth rates among minority groups.

  6. The status of immigrant groups has a lot to do with when they arrived here and what skills and education they brought with them.

Literature

  1. Нелегальная миграция мексиканцев в США: до и после НАФТА// /text/a041.htm

  2. Карелина Н. А. Нелегальная миграция в США: до и после НАФТА // Нелегальная иммиграция. — Главный редактор В. А. Ионцев. Москва: МАКС Пресс, 2002, с. 94-105.

  3. Население США и России: что показала перепись//

  4. Википедия //

  5. Иммиграционная политика и использование иностранной рабочей силы в США // /facts_about_countries/ssha/ssha_zakonodatel_stvo_v_oblasti_migracionnoj_politiki/

  6. Миграция в США: "нелегалы" вытесняют "туземцев" // http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/russian/business/newsid_7629000/7629820.stm

Наливайченко Дмитрий

Don State Technical University

SPAM AND PROTECTION AGAINSTYLE="IT

The article deals with the history of appearing SPAM (a mass dispatch of advertising and other information to the people who don't have a wish to receive it), types of SPAM and also preventive methods of struggle and economic sense of it.


Key words: SPAM, mass dispatch, the Internet users, advertising, swindlers, information, “Nigerian letters”, “Fishing”, message, letters, computer viruses, Can-spam Act.

Originally the word «SPAM» appeared in 1936. It was deciphered as SPiced hAM (a hot ham) and was a trade mark for Hormel Foods Company producing tinned meat. An advertising term SPAM became great popular due to the well-known sketch from show «Flying circus of Monty Payton» (1969) .The plot of the sketch was that all dishes in a cafe menu contained «SPAM», some even several times. When the character of the sketch who had come to this cafe with his wife, asked to bring him a dish without «SPAM» a waitress offered him a dish with «small amount of SPAM». The visitor was indignant and the chorus of the Vikings sitting at the next little tables started to sing a laudatory song about «SPAM». Then the sketch plunged into the chaos. In the end of the sketch the wife exclaimed: I do not love «SPAM»! In total this word was mentioned in the sketch more than hundred times.

Here is another version of appearing «SPAM». After the Second World War there were huge reserves of the tinned food which the American soldiers were supplied with. To sell the stale production, Hormel Foods Company organized an advertising campaign. The word «SPAM» was evident everywhere from show-windows of all cheap shops. It was written on boards of buses and trams. This word could be read on the facades of houses and in newspapers. Advertising of tinned food «SPAM» was continuously broadcast on radio. In fact, there was no possibility to get rid of this ad- it "rushed" to people’s eyes and sounded in all receivers.

But what’s «SPAM» nowadays? «SPAM» is a mass dispatch of commercial, political and other advertising messages to people who don’t have a wish to receive them.

There are different kinds of «SPAM». First of all «SPAM» means ads. Some companies which are engaged in the legal business advertise the goods or services by using «SPAM». They can make its dispatch independently but often they order it from companies (or from persons) which are specialized in it. Attractiveness of such advertising means rather low costs and, presumably, big coverage of potential customers.

Sometimes «SPAM» is used to entice money from the letter’s receiver. The most widespread way received the name «Nigerian letters» because the great quantity of such letters came from Nigeria. Such letters contain the message that the addressee of the letter can somehow receive a great sum of money, and the sender can help him or her with it. Then the sender of the letter asks to transfer a little money with require of official registration or an account opening. This sum also is the purpose of swindlers.

«FISHING» is one more way of swindle by means of «SPAM». It represents an attempt of spammers to entice number of a credit card or an access password to a system of on-line payment from the receiver of the letter. Such letter usually looks like a communique from bank administration. It says that the addressee should confirm data about himself; otherwise his account will be blocked. Also there is a website address (belonging to spammers) with the form which it is necessary to fill in. Among the data which is required to be informed, there are also ones which are necessary to swindlers. That the victim hasn’t guessed a deceit, registration on this website simulates registration of an official website of the bank.

Other kinds of «SPAM» are:

* Chain letters

* Political propaganda distribution

* Mass dispatch for a conclusion of post system out of operation (DoS-attack).

* Mass dispatch on behalf of other person to cause to him or her negative altitude.

* Mass dispatch of the letters containing computer viruses (for their initial distribution).

* Dispatch of the letters containing a sentimental story

Categories of «SPAM»:

Products 25 %

Finance 20 %

For adults 19 %

Deceit and fraud 9 %

Health 7 %

The Internet 7 %

Entertainment 6 %

Spiritual 4 %

Others 3 %

Some spammers use the well-known vulnerabilities in the software or computer viruses in order to take control of a great number computers connected with the Internet, and to use them for a spam sending.

It is obvious that «SPAM» brings an economic benefits to its senders. This means that users, despite the dislike of «SPAM», yet enjoy services advertised via «SPAM». As long as the returns exceed costs to overcome protection from «SPAM» it will not disappear. Thus, the most reliable way of struggle is refusal of the services advertised by means of a spam. There are proposals of the use of public condemnation, even giving up connection with people who buy goods and services advertised by «SPAM».

Nowadays «SPAM» becomes harmful because of the spam sending is even more often coming with virus attacks and illegal intrusion into information systems of the Internet users. For this reason the attention of the public, state structures of law-enforcement and legal agencies is drawn to «SPAM» problem abroad, and also in our country.

Since 1 January 2004 in the USA operates the federal law which received name Can-Spam Act. There are a lot of attempts to bring spammers to court, and sometimes such attempts are successful.

Никитина Любовь Ивановна

Don State Technical University

L’ECONOMIE FRANÇAISE APRES LA CRISE

The article describes the main causes of the world crisis and the consequences of the crisis for France. The resources which will help to overcome the crisis and the measures which were undertaken in order to overcome its effects upon the economy.

Key words : GDP (gross domestic product), unemployment, recession, debts, development, research, credit, transport infrastructure, high education , competitiveness.

La crise financière et économique que connaît la planète depuis 2007 marque la fin de l'ordre mondial établi après 1945 d’après Franck Biancheri consiste actuellement à la décomposition accélérée du " pilier occidental ", avec les États-Unis au cœur.

Après la crise l'Anglo-américain ne serait plus nécessairement synonyme de modernité et le Dollar ne serait plus roi.[2]

La crise des subprimes éclats pendant l’été 2007. Que sont des subprimes ?

Ce sont des crédits immobiliers garantis par la valeur des biens achetés.

accordés à des ménages américaines modestes, avec des taux variables et sur une longue période. Les subprimes ont été inserées parmi d’autres pour composer des produits financiers complexes. Au cours de l’année 2008, le monde de la finance est ébranlé par une série de faillites effectives, oiu évitées grâce àune intervation massive des Etats. Le monde de la finance prend alors conscience de la gravité de la crise , car beaucoup d’institutions financières ont investi dans ces produits financiers complexes et dans leurs dérivés. Comme les banques redoutent le défaut de paiement, elles cessent de prêter entre elles leurs liquidités , asséchant le marché interbancaire de la monnaie centrale.Les acteurs de l’économie réelle se retrouve privé de crédits pour financer leurs investissements et les entreprises des prêts à court terme[1].La crise provoque une augmentation rapide et significative du chômage.

L’économie française après la crise

Par rapport a la plupart des autres pays européens, La France a relativement bien encaissé le choc de la crise à court terme, tout du moins sur le plan de la production intérieure brute (PIB). En 2009, le recul du PIB en volume (-2,5%) y a ainsi été moindre qu’en Allemagne, au Royaume-Uni et en Italie (environ -5%), ainsi que dans l’ensemble de la zone euro (-4%).

Les facteurs qui ont permis d’atténuer le choc de la crise sont les mêmes qui tendent à limiter la vigueur de la reprise depuis lors.

l'Insee a publié les premiers résultats de l'activité économique au 4e trimestre 2010 [1]. Ils étaient plutôt décevants : le produit intérieur brut (PIB) n'a progressé que de 0,3 % par rapport au

trimestre précédent, confirmant le ralentissement engagé. Mais ces résultats permettent aussi de mesurer les principaux moteurs de l'économie française après deux ans de crise.

Au niveau du PIB, c'est-а-dire de l'ensemble des richesses produites par l'économie française, le niveau d'avant crise n'est toujours pas rattrapé: il manque encore 1,6 point par rapport à la mi-2008. Ce n'est pas la faute cependant de la consommation des ménages : fin 2010, elle était supérieure de deux points à son niveau d'avant la crise. En revanche, l'investissement des entreprises reste encore très faible, avec 9,5 points de retard sur 2008, même s'il a commencé à se redresser un peu. Et la situation est encore pire pour l'investissement des ménages (dans

l'immobilier) qui accuse toujours un déficit de 13 points par rapport à son niveau d'avant crise. Facteur aggravant : l'investissement public, qui avait déjà légèrement fléchi malgré le plan de relance, est de nouveau orienté à la baisse du fait de l'austérité à laquelle sont soumises les

collectivités locales. Enfin, le commerce extérieur se redresse rapidement tant au niveau des importations que des exportations. Toutefois, lui non plus n'a pas encore rattrapé son niveau d'avant la crise.[5 ]

La faiblesse de structurelle du tissu de petites et moyennes entreprises est préoccupante pour l’économie en France.En témoignant notamment les problèmes chroniques de rentabilité auxquels de très nombreuses entreprises font face , rencontrant souvent une situation financière difficile.

La France a les pertes de parts de marché àl’exportation d’année en année. Son appareil productif et commercial souffre de la concurrence accrue non seulement de l’Allemagne, mais de plusieurs autres pays d’Europe. Le niveau de la production potentielle devrait à terme subir une perte permanante , d’environ 3, 5% par rapport aux niveaux qui auraient prévalu sans la crise. Cela va conduire les entrprises à ajuster massivement et durablement leurs invesstissement et leurs effectifs employés. Pendant la crise plus de 490 000 emplois ont été perdus en deux années.Le taux de chômage relativement stable en 2010 (autour de 9, 5%).

L’économie française dispose encore de nombreux atouts :

-les ménages y sont faiblement endettés et leur taux d’épargne est relativement élevé.

-les grandes entreprises françaises réalisent dans l’ensemble de bonnes performances economiques et financieres , avec des leaders mondiaux dans des nombreux secteurs

( aéronatique/défense, construction, ingénierie, énergie, traitement de l’eau et des déchets, agro-alimentaire, grande distribution, assurance, tourisme , publicité, industrie de luxe, de la culture et des loisirs) ;

-le marché de l’immobilier résidentiel y est consideré comme sain, comme en témoigne notamment une absence de surcapacité globale ;

-en matière de service , la France constitue le 4 em plus gros exportateur mondial (derrière les Etats –Unis, le Royaume-Uni et Allemagne) et degage des excédents commerciaux;

-dans l’ensemble , les banques sont considérées comme plus solides en france que dans la plupart des pays d’Europe.

-compte tenu de la natalité et des flux migratoires, les perspectives démographiques en France sont parmi les plus favorables à la croissance que l’on trouve en Europe.

Pour élargir la perspective, il est intéressant de mentionner les classements internationaux qui utilisent une batterie de critères mesurant le degré de compétitivité ou d’atracrtivité. A titrre d’exemple, La France était située au 15 èm rang mondial dans le dernier palmères annuel de compétitivité qu’a établi le World économique Forum, à partir de plus de 110 facteurs et en comparant au total 139 pays.

Pour les entreprises transnationales, la France présente ainsi des avantages de localisation particulièrement favorables dans les domaines tels que le traitement fiscal des activités de recherche et développement (R&D), les prix de l’électricité, le pourcentage des 25-34 ans ayant un niveau de l’éducation supérieure, le taux de pénétration de l’Internet à haut débit.

D’après le rapport préparé par Joseph Stiglitz et Amartia Sen, le gouvernement français ne doit pas mesurer la richesse nationale que par le PIB et d’intégrer des indicateurs complémentaires (patrimoine, offre de services publics, niveau et répartition des revenus) et de mettre moins l’accent sur la mesure statistique de la production économique que sur celle du bien -être.(8)

Les pouvoirs publics se sont engagés dans une trajectoire prolongée de consolidation budgétaire et fiscale mais ils s’efforcent en même temps de préparer l’avenir en préservant –voire en renforçant –certains domaines cruciaux tels que l’enseignement supérieur et la R&D.

Les perspectives de la France sont sensiblement plus favorables si l’on raisonne sur la base d’un grand nombre d’indicateurs-au delà des seuls chiffres du PIB ou des exportations, surtout dans ce contexte de la sortie de la crise.

A long terme, différents facteurs devraient permettre à la France d’améliorer sa compétitivité, notamment la vigueur de son secteur tertiaire, une croissance démographique positive et certains avantages du site économique, tels que des infrastructures bien développées.

La littérature à consulter 

1. Affilé B., Gentil C., Rimbert F..Les grands questions de l’économie contemporaine [Text]./France :letudiant.fr]-2010, 167p.

2. Crise mondiale - En route pour le monde d'après: La France, l'Europe et le monde dans la décennie 2010-2020'[Text], Franck Biancheri

3. Cabannes P.-Y et al., Quelle croissance de moyen terme après la crise ?, in :INSEE (dir.), L’économie française –comptes et dossiers –Insee Références- édition 2010, p.43-70

4. Dhont-Petrault E. et Mantout S., France Atrractiveness Scoreboard –Agence Française pour les invesstissement internationaux (AFII) et Centre d’analyse stratégique (CAS), Paris 2010.

5. Guillaume Duval Alternatives Economiques n° 300 - mars 2011

6. International Monetary Fund, France: Article IV Consultation- Staff Report, Washington, DC, IMF Country Report n 10/240, juillet 2010.

7. Lallement Rémi L’économie française après la crise : un cap difficile, mais possible à franchir.

DGAPanalyse Frankreich 10, Dezember 2010.

8. Stiglitz J. , Sen A. et Fitoussi J.-P., Report by the Commission on the Measurement of Economic Performance and Social Progress, Paris 2009.

9. World economic Forum. The Global Competitiveness Report 2010-2011, Genève 2010.

Никитина Любовь Ивановна

Don State Technical University, Russia

OFFSHORE TERRITORIES: PROS AND CONS

This article describes the offshore territories, including typical indicators of offshore companies, purposes of creating offshore territory, the positive and negative effects, and their impact on national economies in a whole.

Key words: Offshore territories, development, registration, taxes, limited liability, foreign investment, economy, employment, accumulation, equity market.

Offshore business stills remains an under-researched phenomenon in the system of international economic relations. The scientists attitude towards it is ambiguous and controversial. Therefore, the trends in its rapid development require a more detailed study. This necessity arises from the fact that the existence of offshore centers is an important factor in attracting foreign investment, in performing economic reforms and modernization of the management mechanism.

The aim of the report is to provide data on offshore areas, assessing to investigate their advantages and disadvantages, to study the state and trends in the development of the offshore business.

History of establishment;

Offshore territories appeared several thousand years ago. Originally they were the Commerce pirate cities of Phoenicia and Crete that had long controlled and frightened the Mediterranean people. Offshore business even at that time was profitable, but remained quite risky. A good example was made by the experience of Athens. After the authorities had imposed a two percent import and export tax from Greece the other countries began to go pass around Athens to avoid paying taxes. Later on small island states which did not impose taxes on traders began to appear. Traders preferred to sell goods not in their own countries (for example, in England) but transported them to islands where they were exempted from taxes. Despite the centuries-old activities of traders, the term “offshore” in the modern meaning was appeared only in the late 1950’s in the U.S., after some company managed to avoid state control of its activities by the principle of geographical selectivity, namely by changing the country of registration: the company took its activities out of the legal reach of the U.S. government.

There are typical indicators of offshore companies:

1) Offshore companies may be engaged in any activity (except certain types of activities, which require licensing procedures);

2) Limited liability: the owners are responsible for the obligations of the company only in the paid-up authorized capital for non-banking companies there are usually no restrictions on the minimum paid-up authorized capital;

3) in the country of registration the company must have a registered (legal) address and the agent, who may be a person, individuals or legal, whose duty is to actually be at the registered office and be the link between the state authorities of the country of registration and the company , and to maintain a real is not necessary;

4) the company has the right, to open up bank accounts in the world without any restriction, and if in the country of registration there no taxes, and obligatory audits are not, it is not demanded to inform the authorities about accounts in the country of registration are also acceptable;

5) The owners are determined by shares (registered or bearer), and in their turn they elect directors, and they already take all current solutions, such as opening accounts in a bank, borrowing or lending, and etc.; directors appoint the company a secretary of the company, whose signature certifies the reports of all assemblies and decisions of the board of directors and shareholders;

6) The owners may be any legal parties or individuals;

7) The most important criterion: the company must operate it’s activity only outside the country of registration and not have any source of income its territory, including having no deals with local legal parties or individuals.

Purposes of creating offshore territory:

  • Economic:

  • foreign investment

  • increase of foreign exchange earnings to the economy of the country

  • Social:

  • development acceleration of the country

  • increasing employment and the population income

  • Scientific and technical:

  • leading foreign technologies launching in the field of modern telecommunications and banking

Such goals may vary depending on the particular situation and the type of an offshore jurisdiction (in the Netherlands and Luxembourg, the activity of holding jurisdictions has attracted additional funds into the economy, but the countries themselves have become the world’s biggest investors)

The most widely-spread variants of using offshore companies:

1) For legal persons:

• using offshore territories in import-export operations;

• working on foreign financial and stock markets;

•active work at the equity market;

• loaning from an offshore company;

• transferring profit to an offshore company under a contract to provide information and consultancy services

2) For individuals:

• deposit money;

• accumulation of cash assets;

• the registration of real estate for a foreign company or its subsidiaries

Below on the world map the location of offshore jurisdictions is given. As it is seen from the picture (offshore territories are highlighted in pink colour) the largest accumulation of offshore territories is located in the district of Caribbean Sea, French Polynesia and Western Europe. This arrangement is due to historical background. Most of the zones belong to the former and still existing British and French colonies.

The offshore territories can be classified into three main groups:

1

Classic offshore territories. Countries which allow the offshore
companies registered in them and which do not act on their territory,
full exemption from taxes in exchange for a small fixed annual fee; these
countries do not require to keep accounting records.

Bahamas, British Virgin
islands (BVI), Belize,
Mauritius, Nevis, Panama,
Seychelles Islands, Turks
and Caicos.

2

Countries that have low tax rates for certain types of companies or
where such companies can receive significant tax benefits. As a rule,
these states require the companies to conduct the accounting records.
International community.

Cyprus
Hungary, Hong Kong
Gibraltar, Liechtenstein,
Luxembourg, Uruguay

3

Countries that give the companies high respectability and in some cases
providing them with, certain tax remissions under strict conditions

USA, UK, Switzerland

Most economists see the positive effect of offshore territories on the global economy which includes:

• Increasing cross-border financial flows;

• Turnover acceleration of financial assets on an international scale

• Creating conditions for investment diversification, improved access to credit and better allocation of capital;

• Motivation to reduce the overall tax burden and on that basis stimulate the economic activity in the global economy;

• Reducing the risk of expropriation and the creation of conditions for the protection of property rights, which, in turn, may initiate increasing of economic growth, especially in donor countries;

• Promotion states prosperity, where offshore companies are located, that promotes more harmonious development of world economy as a whole;

• Improving the competitiveness of companies at the national and global levels using more flexible strategies of developing.

Among the negative aspects of offshore business economists and scientists we mark the following:

• Unfair tax competition, which takes away revenue from offshore countries;

• creating an element of instability in the global economy and finances because of potential savings of large amounts of capital in offshore territories, especially speculative;

• shadow economy support;

• Reduction of the employment in the donor countries;

• providing undue competitive edge to individual companies;

• Adverse impact on the social situation in the donor countries associated with the negative assessment of tax evasion in public opinion.

Comparing these two lists we come to a conclusion that one and the same property of offshore territories can be treated as an advantage and a disadvantage, depending on the specific interests of investors.

Nowadays offshore is very popular in the world, but many companies try to hide their real incomes and, consequently, the economy of states suffers. The offshore territories remain one of the best ways to avoid taxes legally, they help to develop small and medium businesses. However, it should be remembered that the offshore zone is not a way to prosperity. It is expected to raise and strengthen the economy.

Literature

  1. Financial Stability Forum, Report of the Working Group on Offshore Centres, April 2010

  2. Harmful Tax Practices, OECD, 4 July 2008

  3. Financial Stability Forum's Working Group on Offshore Financial Centers Report (April 2000).

Овчинникова Ксения Юрьевна

Don State Technical University

THE PROBLEMS OF POST-CRISIS MODERNIZATION OF RUSSIAN ECONOMY.

IS IT POSSIBLE TO COMBINE CONSERVATISM AND MODERNIZATION?

This article examines the connection of conservatism and modernization in Russia and other countries. A brief analysis of the history of conservatism is carried out. It is argued that the precise nature of modernization has differed in various periods. One of the objectives of the article is to determine the meaning ​​of conservative modernization from the modern political-economic position. The opinions of various political and scientific figures regarding the possibility of Russia's modernization while preserving the traditions are presented in this research. The paper then reviews the challenge of modernization in Russia.

Key words: conservatism, modernization, "mass society", nation, ideology, reforms, political-economic position, post-industrial economy, global economic crisis, ideological extremism.

A thriving knowledge society must be cosmopolitan and open; it must reward talent and creativity; it must invest in people and education. The radical innovation and knowledge creation that underpins modern economic growth thrives in cultures that are democratic and dissenting; that are open to new ideas from unusual sources; in which authority and elites are constantly questioned and challenged. (Charles Webster Leadbeater).

Leadbeater epitomises the construction of a new economy predicated on the development of human and social capital in which creativity and talent is rewarded. Education and lifelong learning is to play a key role in these processes. The references to democracy and dissent articulate with concerns about social justice and inclusion. Underlying these ideas is the suggestion that we are living through a moment of economic transformation in which old assumption and relations are brought into question and are seen as no longer appropriate. Economic and social relations are being transformed and have to be re-thought to bring them into line with the ‘new’ reality. In this way must be found such conditions that will allow conservatism and modernization coexist in the modern world.

If there has been a specter haunting conservatism in modern times, it is the specter of "mass society." The fear of mass society is a product of two related possibilities. The first is the disintegration of traditional allegiances in the name of liberation and personal freedom. Since conservatives hold that such allegiances are the condition of identity, the consequence would be the loss of individuality. Liberalism, ironically, promotes the death of liberty. The second fear concerns the manipulation of that disintegration by ideologies that promise material satisfaction in return for absolute political power. Having destroyed individuality, mass society would demand abasement before the secular image of its collective power, the state. Socialism, ironically, promotes the death of the social.

In the nineteenth century and for much of the twentieth century, conservatism defended property, religion, and family as bulwarks against the feared drift to "mass" society in which the decencies of civilized life would be subverted by popular barbarism. This disposition helps to capture what is distinctive about the conservative idea of the nation, the one form of popular politics to which it not only adapted but which it also helped to define. For conservatives, the nation is understood as a political community united in acceptance of the legitimacy of traditional political arrangements. The "people" is not some abstract category but the historic nation in its regional and social variety, with its traditional beliefs, particular affections, and long-standing prejudices. To be conservative is another way of professing one's sympathy for the "real" character of the nation.

Conservatism has been compelled to identify exactly what it is that makes the nation distinctive. In conservative thought, the idea of the nation serves to foster piety toward its distinctive social and political institutions. This differentiation has nothing to do with the intensity of national feeling. It has to do with the source of national feeling. Conservatism locates it in the inherited practices of a way of life and has been concerned to limit the popular will in the name of tradition and order. In Europe between the two world wars, conservatism was outflanked by radical right-wing movements because an appeal to tradition and order appeared irrelevant in conditions of economic collapse and social disintegration. The sense of political decadence made an ideology of popular salvation, like fascism, a powerful alternative to traditional conservative patriotism. Britain was the exception, and the experience of British conservatism was thought to illustrate the modernization and conservatism.

So the conservatism has a long tradition, but the content of this term is understood in different ways in different countries. As noted earlier, conservatism in the United States is a concept which has evolved over the history of the country, encompassing somewhat different political stances in various eras. In England, the founders of the conservative ideology were A. Johnson and E. Burke, who advocated the strengthening of individual freedoms and parliamentary control over state spending while reducing taxes and guarantees a minimum wage. In their view the revolution creates confusion, which eliminates the old institutions, not creating the effective replacement for them.

The "Iron Lady"(Margaret Thatcher) reforms continued the conservative tradition. At this time, despite the strike, the unprofitable coal mines were closed, British Telecom and British Petroleum were privatized, and other companies, whose controlling stake was owned by the state, no longer received subsidies, competing with private traders on equal terms. Free entry and exit on the London Stock Exchange of listed companies has been attained. As a result the London Stock Exchange has taken a leading position in the world.

French conservatives, who opposed the social reforms and who advocated the preservation of the monarchy and class privileges, gained notoriety. But this can be considered as an exception. By contrast, modern European conservatives, advocating a strong state, strengthening the family, marriage and religion, freedom of enterprise and privatization, tax cuts, do not opposed to regulation of the market and solid social guarantees. Evolution, in their view, combines two principles - guarding (protecting national economies from adverse external influences) and the change (making possible by the active promotion of innovation). In this case, diversity is not without selection and without selection is not evolution.

The last elections in France, Germany, Britain, Italy, Spain, Portugal, the Netherlands showed that Europeans favor a policy of increasing the public innovation, economic and social costs, the fight against offshore tax havens, the preservation of the European civilization Christian roots . The "left" hasn’t got a new political and economic theory to explain the achievements and threats of globalization; there is no theorists such as Karl Marx.

In Russia, with its tradition of rebellion, the word "conservatism" sounded more like a curse, though Pobedonostsev, who was called a reactionary by Marxists, was the author of the best in Europe Civil Code. Vyazemsky considered Pushkin as a liberal-conservative. The motto of the conservative wing of Stolypin was: "We do not need great upheavals, we need the great Russia. » In an article published in the «Financial Times» (2003) Medvedev said that the "social conservatism" has won in Russia.

A fundamental study of conservative socio-economic studies was carried out under supervision of Solonin. Achkasov, Gryzlov, Ryazanov, Rybakova, Raskova, Rumyantsev and others have shown the role of conservatism in the development of Russian economic thought, in the projects of Russia's modernization and in economic reforms.

What does the conservative modernization mean from the modern political-economic position?

Firstly, above all, it means a qualitative leap, a break, a phase transition in evolution. It is a technological breakthrough in the areas where Russia is on the same stage with the most developed countries and where it can overcome the lag in a relatively short period of time.

These are space technology, nuclear energy, a number of health, information and other technologies. Technological breakthrough must be accompanied by transformation of the government, business and society institutions. The theory of evolutional modernization that was established in the middle of last century by Rostow, and Parsons includes the concept of market planning, created by Russian economists Leontiev, Novozhilov, Fedorenko.

This concept allows to resolve conflicts that are inevitable during the development and complication of economic system, without a revolutionary change in social system, through reform of governance, support for innovators and the middle class, sustainable economic growth.

Secondly, conservative modernization is nonviolent. The initiative of breakthrough comes from the government and it is usually associated with losing a war (reforms after the Crimean War in Russia, after World War II in Germany and Japan) or the threat of independence loss and economic collapse (the Meiji reforms in Japan, Ataturk in Turkey). However, the success of modernization is required to convince its need and to bring to its implementation not only a narrow layer of the elite, but the whole nation. In this case, non-revolutionary modernization is organic and it leads to changing of the institutions and mentality of the nation. Otherwise, it comes down to copying someone else's experience and becomes a permanent catch-up.

Forcible modernization achieved their goals during the reign of Peter I and Stalin. In the first case, Russia has evolved from a regional into a world power, in the second case in 1943 the Soviet industry, despite the loss of the most developed western regions, has overtaken Germany, producing tanks, airplanes and other kinds of military equipment. However, the social implications of such upgrades (worsening demographics, undermining the personal initiative and interest) have been tragic.

In the post-industrial economy forced modernization is not only harmful, but not impossible. In Russia today there is no massive reserves of the workforce, and people have changed. The experience of "perestroika" made them more rational and informed, they understood their own interests and did not tend to take for granted loud slogans promising "shining heights" to distant future generations.
Thirdly, conservative modernization means the use of the best things, learned by previous generations. By taking advantage of the education system and focus on major areas of science, Russia became the world leader in bridge construction (the names of Melnikov and Timoshenko are famous in the whole world), discoveries in radio and TV technique ( Popov, Zworykin), helicopter (Kamov), turbo and boiler making. Our country had the first nuclear power station, the first satellite was launched, the first supersonic jet and civilian aircraft were built. Revival, preservation and augmentation of the best of what has been achieved in pre-revolutionary Russia, Soviet years, and even in the "dashing" 90 years means rejection of both the extreme left and extreme right radicalism and extremism.

Russian conservatism means respect for the culture, preserving the traditions of the Russian Eurasian civilization, opposition politicians to destabilize the country in order to learn other political and economic models. In the world, according to leading social philosophers, there are only ten distinct civilizations now. Successful modernization used their features as an important competitive advantage, combining a conservative attitude towards culture with revolutionary solutions in the policy, the preservation of its civilizational identity with a decisive change in the situation in the economy and social relations.

Gandhi warned that the development of the consumption cult standards adopted in the U.S. would be a catastrophe for the populous India. Roosevelt’s "New Deal" helped to avoid breaking up the market system and the social revolution, by relying on the development of the business initiatives inherent to the Americans and limitation of the power of monopolies. The current U.S. President, Barack Obama, supports science, education, high technology, small business, using methods typical for American civilization, and at the same time he strengthens control over financial markets, offshore accounts and bonus figures on Wall Street.

Adenauer based on the ideas of organization and discipline that were organic to the German. It was the time when the war-torn Germany has again become a modern developed country. "Asian tigers» have created "economic miracle", using their traditions of economic consumption and intensive work combined with strict adherence to requirements of government. The Chinese economic model is not feasible in Russia, because of other structures of the economic system (most Chinese live in rural areas and do not receive pensions and various allowances), the mentality of the population and decision-making system. In 2010 75% of the Russian budget is spent on social needs rather than on infrastructure development. But there is no variants now.

The conservative position should be based on such values ​​of Russian civilization as teamwork, commitment to social justice, ingenuity, ability to manage in difficult circumstances, understanding the special role of the government in the vast territory of the country with long borders, with multinational and multi-religious population, and tolerance to other nations and religions that are indigenous Russia.

Kirill, patriarch of Russian Orthodox Church, (Expert, 2010, 4) rightly spoke against making distinctive cultural communities in an amorphous mass, which forgets its roots and which is guided in his life by universal spiritless principles. In his opinion, Russia is an organic part of European civilization, while at the same time, religious and cultural differences between eastern and western parts of that civilization compose the objective reality that generates the colorful cultural palette. As Berdyaev noted in his "Russian Idea": "Russian nation is not a purely European and not purely Asian people." In the heart of the Russian people have always fought two principles - the east and west. It should be noted that now Europe faces a serious challenge to lose its own civilization and cultural identity. By the twenty-first century here appears disappointment in the old ideology. As the patriarch says, modern man more follows his personal interest and pleasure than any principles. in the spiritual vacuum of general relativity. This is reminiscent of the era of disintegration of the Roman Empire with its loss of moral compass

Russian conservatism means a rejection of the infinite consumption growth dogma, which is imposed by advertising and mass culture and which is dominant in the Euro-Atlantic civilization. Unfortunately, many Russian politicians do not understand the true meaning of political economy conservatism, contrasting conservatism and modernization. Urgens, CEO of the Institute of Contemporary Development, in one of his speeches says that conservative modernization is "an oxymoron” and he does not believe that a conservative modernization is possible in those conditions, in which Russia are placed now.

Several authors have denied even the possibility of modernizing Russia. Afanasyev, known in 1980-1990es. politician believes that Russia has missed all of the historical chances of modernization. But even these scholars recognize that "Russia does not sink into the ground, and therefore the question of its modernization, with all the historical and political circumstances, remains on the agenda". Unfortunately, in this opinion he is not alone. Inozemtsev and other economists believe that Russian society is not able to upgrade, because "we are too rich and proud to go to the students" (Gazette, 24 February 2010). In our opinion, such conclusions have no basis: the conservative and modernizing Russia's potential is enormous.

At the same time in today Russia it can not be forced modernization, though, because at the beginning of XX century more than three-quarters of population was younger than 35 years, and by 2010 the proportion of young people has become less than 40%. The key to the success of the current modernization is people savings and human capital development, drawing on the best in the national culture.

The Address to the Federal Assembly of Russian Federation President includes a program for Russia's transition to a higher stage of civilization by nonviolent methods, the program of overcoming the economic backwardness (export of raw materials in exchange for finished goods), the state machine of totalitarianism, corruption, lack of initiative and paternalistic attitudes in society, shamefully low efficiency and productivity.

Such civilizational leap was prepared by achievements of 1999 -2008 years, when World Bank estimates that Russia's GDP is more than doubled, and the average salary in dollars quintupled. The country got rid of the huge public debt and alienated from the power of the oligarchs, has overcome a threat of separatism and disintegration of Russia. But 20 years of market reforms, as Medvedev noted, did not save Russia from dependence on raw materials, the Russian economy, as well as Soviet, largely ignores the needs of man. Political Economy aims to justify the ways of Russian reviving as a world power on a new basis, based on the “knowledgeable economy”, values ​​and institutions of democracy.

This suggests extensive public debate, qualitative changes in the economy and social relations. These include the transformation in the legal system which began in 2010. Converted inherited from the Soviet era prisons, where people firstly broken the law for unimportant, including economic crimes, not violent are kept together with recidivists. In case if the fine is not possible the new law is proposed to use such punishment as collecting arrears, house arrest, forced labor and so on. From 2012 new institutions in the appellate courts will be created.

Many researchers suggest a rational set of economic policy measures, corresponding to a real level of national economy, its institutions, rather than a new radical shock therapy. They proceed from the necessity to take into account the previous history of the country. Measures that have been proven in the ethnically homogeneous Poland or China, with its unique system of administrative and ideological influence on the masses of the people, would have devastating consequences in Russia. Conservative political economy should suggest ways of creating competitive markets that do not undermine the government's position as an organizer and strategist of modernization. It makes possible to overcome failures of both market and state mechanisms. Nature of Russian modernization is determined by historical patterns, rather than the confluence of fortuitous circumstances.

The challenge of modernization in Russia

Prompted by the shock of the global economic crisis, a second narrative – that of ‘modernization’ - is firmly taking root in Russia’s external relations. Political economists have argued that ‘many in Russia thought that they were decoupled form what happened in the leading industrial economies… some observers have argued that Russia’s crisis is home - grown. It is not. Russia’s structures and policies have determined how the shock played out in Russia, but the shock itself was external’. While the shock may have been exogenous in origin, the fact that Russia’s economic performance over 2009 was the worst among the G20 economies forced the recognition at the elite level of the need for serious economic reform – or modernization – to ensure that Russia would not be so vulnerable to external developments in the future. The pre-crisis economic growth model that generated a fast rate of growth between 1999 and 2007 is now considered insufficient to secure similar rates of growth in the future. Institutional frailties, a low rate of private investment, a dependence on natural resource revenues, a poorly functioning financial sector and an increasingly negative demographic profile all look likely to hamper economic development in Russia in the years to come unless fundamental changes occur in the prevailing political economy of the country.

The effects of the economic crisis have fundamental implications for Russia’s relations with the EU. In a series of articles, notably in The Economist, Medvedev committed Russia to sustainable growth, to diversification and innovation in a more balanced economy, to greater participation in the global trade system – including through accession to the WTO – and to a broader contemporary conception of security inspired by a ‘reassessment of values’. A powerful catalyst for change was the world financial and economic crisis…

Conclusion

In a century of ideological extremism like the twentieth century, conservatism often appeared something of an affectation and marginal to the march of history in which the advancing forces of modernization were thought certain to rout the retreating forces of conservatism. Insofar as many people have lost faith in the "grand narratives" of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, like Marxism and other emancipatory ideals, then the conservative disposition may no longer appear so reactionary. Since conservatism never subscribed to the grosser forms of the modernist faith, contemporary skepticism comes as no surprise to it. However, as befits a philosophy of modesty and imperfection, conservatism cannot assume a final victory.

References

  1. Posner R, “A Failure of Capitalism. The Descent into Depression.” – Harvard University,2009

  2. Turner C, “The Credit Church. Globalization and Worldwide Economic Crisis”, 2009

  3. Davidson P, “The Keynes Solutions: The Path to Global Economic Prosperity”, 2009

  4. Гелбрейт Дж, «Новое индустриальное общество» , М.,1969

  5. Stigltz J.,”Free Markets and Sinking of the Global Economy”, Alen Line,2010

  6. Avis, J. (1993) “Post-Fordism, Curriculum Modernisers and Radical Practice”,2003 No1.3, p3-14

  7. Blair, T. (2000) “World economic forum speech”, Davos, Switzerland 28 January http:/www.number10.gov.uk/

  8. Rose, N. (1999) “Inventiveness in politics, Economy and Society”, No 3, P467.

  9. Vandenbroucke, F. (1998) “Globalisation, Inequality and social democracy”, London

  10. Dr Derek Averre and Dr Richard Connolly, Centre for Russian and East European Studies, University of Birmingham, UK, “EU-Russia relations: a partnership for modernization?”,2010.

  11. Bruce Frohnen, ed. American Conservatism: An Encyclopedia (2006)

  12. Patrick Allitt, The Conservatives: Ideas and Personalities Throughout American History (Yale U.P. 2009), p. 2

  13. Allitt, The Conservatives: Ideas and Personalities Throughout American History p. 278

  14. Aughey, Arthur, Greta Jones, and W. T. M. Riches. The Conservative Political Tradition in Britain and the United States. : Pinter, 1992.

  15. Andrew Denham, Kieron O'Hara, “The Three 'Mantras': 'Modernization' and the Conservative Party 1945-2005”, University of Southampton, 2007

Олейник Дарья

Don State Technical University, Russia

THE COMPETITIVE EDGE OF LEAN MANUFACTURING

The article is focused on the advantages of Lean Manufacturing, its goals, basic principles and the main ways of production optimization.

Key words: lean manufacturing, organizational structure, to eliminate waste, transportation

Nowadays more and more organizations are realizing the importance of quality and customer satisfaction in order to sustain a competitive business. There is also a pressure to reduce manufacturing, operating and inventory costs and increase efficiencies not only in manufacturing but in different types of industries, such as banking, business and community services. The challenge today is to adapt these concepts and technologies to this wide range of industries successfully. The key to success in implementing lean manufacturing principles in any organization is to foster a culture of continuous improvement within its company culture, quality focus, lean thinking, and customer satisfaction as the organization's ultimate goal. This shift in culture, if not already present, must come from top management and be embraced by all layers of the organization. I want to start with the quotation of one of the famous economist Rizzardo: “The Value adding activities are simply only those things the customer is willing to pay for, everything else is waste, and should be eliminated, simplified, reduced, or integrated”[ ]

What is Lean Manufacturing? We use this term to describe a manufacturing, industrial or service operation which operates with little or no type of waste, thus making the operation very efficient and only consisting of value adding steps from start to finish. Therefore the non value adding "steps" that reducing costs for the manufacturer.

The goals of Lean manufacturing systems differ on the point of view of different authors. While some maintain an internal focus, for example, to increase profit for the organization, others claim that improvements should be done for the sake of the customer. Some goals are:

Improve quality: To stay competitive in today’s marketplace, a company must understand its customers' wants and needs and design processes to meet their expectations and requirements.

Eliminate waste: Waste is any activity that consumes time, resources, or space but does not add any value to the product or service.

Reduce time: Reducing time takes to finish an activity from start to finish. It is one of the most effective ways to eliminate waste and lower costs.

Reduce total costs: To minimize cost, a company must produce products only for the customers’ needs.

Quality Management

In addition to eliminating waste, lean manufacturing seeks to provide optimum quality by building in a method whereby each part is examined immediately after manufacture, and if there is a defect, the production line stops so that the problem can be detected at the earliest possible time.

Employee

One big advantage for the workers in a lean manufacturing system is that they are the major part of the company’s decision making process. Lean manufacturing plants have a more organic organizational structure. Each worker is a leader in their own area of expertise and you don’t see a big hierarchical structure. This allows each employee, no matter what their role in the company, to feel like a vital piece of the whole.

Supply Chain

A supply chain is defined as the set of processes and resources that produces and delivers finished goods from raw materials and capital resources. Lean manufacturing principals may be used to improve and optimize supply chain performance in many ar

In a lean manufacturing system, suppliers deliver small lots on a daily basis, and machines are not necessarily run at full capacity. One of the primary focuses of lean manufacturing is to eliminate waste. In this respect, large inventories are seen as a type of waste that has a high cost.

There are seven wastes that LM aims principally to reduce or alleviate.

Firstly, LM aims to scrap over production among companies. Over production leads to lowering prices of products and merchandise that would eventually lead to a company loss.

Secondly, LM aims to reduce and cut over processing inside all companies. Over processing makes expenses higher and profits less. Time is also wasted by that.

Thirdly, LM maximizes transportation by automotive and cars.

Fourthly, LM makes motion productive. By setting aside big equipment in the work place, laborers are able to move freely, enabling them to eventually speed up and do more production.

Fifthly, LM prevents piling up of inventories. All inventories should be kept controlled because prices of the goods are affected by piled up inventories.

Lastly, LM helps companies avoid the production of goods with scraps and defects.

There are more and more companies around the world that successfully implement LM techniques and principles in their daily operation. It should be noted that companies that use LM with success are profitable and strong (Honda, Toyota Motor Corp, Johnson & Johnson, Nike, Panasonic etc.)

The advantages of Lean Manufacturing

Lean manufacturing strategies can save millions of dollars and produce excellent results. Advantages include lower lead times, reduced set-up times, lower equipment expense, and of course, increased profits. It gives the manufacturer a competitive edge by reducing costs and increasing quality, and by allowing the manufacturer to be more responsive to customer demands.

So, the implementation of lean manufacturing into any operation or business can deliver great results in efficiency, team morale and culture, and a healthier bottom line. The main goals of this system are to improve quality, eliminate waste, reduce time, and total costs that allow to increase profits for the manufacturers. For these, the companies introduce automation into the process, produce and deliver on time and in full all customer orders only after these orders are placed on demand by the customer instead of producing/purchasing parts and finish goods to stock, foster a culture of continuous improvement, provide optimum quality, and suppliers deliver small lots on daily basis. Lean manufacturing scrap over production among companies, reduce and cut over processing inside all companies, maximize transportation, make motion productive, prevent piling up of inventories, help make companies alleviate and prevent waiting time, and helps companies avoid the production of goods with scraps and defects. The usage of lean principles leads to the benefits of company’s decision making process, opportunity to make suggestions and take actions, to feel like a vital piece of the whole production process.

Lean manufacturing strategies can save millions of dollars and produce excellent results. Advantages include lower lead times, reduced set-up times, lower equipment expenses, and of course, increased profits. It gives a manufacturer the competitive edge by reducing costs and increasing quality, and company’s social corporative responsibility.

Literature

  1. Вумек Джеймс П., Джонс Даниел Т. Бережливое производство. Как избавиться от потерь и добиться процветания вашей компании. -М.,: Альпина Бизнес Букс, 2008.

  2. Вумек Джеймс П., Джонс Даниел Т. Машина, которая изменила мир.-М.: Попурри, 2007.

  3. Голоктеев К., Матвеев И. Управление производством: инструменты, которые работают., — Санкт-Петербург: Питер, 2008.

  4. Тайити Оно. Производственная система Тойоты: уходя от массового производства. — М: Издательство ИКСИ, 2008 г.

Олейник Д.В., Муругов И.Е.

Don State Technical University

EMPRUNTS

The aim of this article is learning of loans from different foreign languages. In the article reasons for transition words is analysed, resulted examples of loans in many areas (sport, military, affair, computer science, music, ballet, cuisine), shown are the examples of Russian loans from French.

Loan, vocabulary, lexical system, word meaning, culture, spelling, pronunciation, adaptation.

En linguistique, et plus particulièrement en étymologie, lexicologie et linguistique comparée, on nomme emprunt lexical le processus consistant, pour une langue, à introduire dans son lexique un terme venu d’une autre langue. L’emprunt peut être direct (une langue emprunte directement à une autre langue) ou bien indirect (une langue emprunte à une autre langue via une – ou plusieurs langues vecteurs).

Quelles sont les raisons de l’emprunt ?

La langue d’un pays dominant culturellement, économiquement ou politiquement, à une époque donnée devient très fréquemment donneuse de mots: c’est le cas du français dont le vocabulaire militaire (batterie, brigade...) et la plupart des noms de grade ( comme général et capitaine) se retrouvent dans toutes les armées européennes depuis l’époque où la France était considérée comme un modèle d’organisation militaire ; c’est aussi celui de l’italien dans le domaine de la musique, qui a transmis les termes comme piano ou adagio. L’anglais, actuellement, fournit, du fait de son importance dans ce domaine, nombre de mots concernant le vocabulaire de l’informatique, comme bit et net, qui n’ont pas d’équivalent français préexistant ; cette langue alimente aussi le vocabulaire de la gestion d’entreprise (manager, staff, marketing, budget).

Des mots étrangers plus ou moins bien adaptés

Avec le temps, des mots empruntés peuvent s’être lexicalisés et ne plus être sentis comme des emprunts. Par exemple, le mot redingote est bien un emprunt à l’anglais riding-coat (« manteau pour aller à cheval »).

On voit des emprunts de l’italien : graffiti, scénario, spaghetti, une pizza

Du latin : un géranium, un opus a donné une opéra,

du grec : un problème

de l'allemand : épée, sabre , guerre, chouette, choucroute

de l'espagnol : tornade

Deux grands types de langues se distinguent, lors de l’emprunt :

*les langues qui, comme le français, gardent l’orthographe du mot étranger (ex. manager);

*les langues qui adaptent la prononciation du mot à ses habitudes graphiques (science).

On peut illustrer un aller-retour avec le nom français budget [bydʒɛ], emprunté au XVIIIe siècle à l’anglais budget [’bʌdʒɪt], qui l’avait lui-même pris à l’ancien français bougette /budʒetə/, au sens de « petit sac de cuir »

Le français, ainsi qu'il l'a toujours fait, emprunte de nouveaux mots à des langues étrangères. Ces dernières décennies, les emprunts sont massivement issus de l'anglais/américain. On notera cependant que de nombreux termes ne font que passer dans la langue et sortent de l'usage courant après quelque temps. ( Par exemples : dressing-room, public relations, dancing (moins courants aujourd'hui que salon, relations publiques, discothèque)).

Les emprunts à l'anglais se font surtout dans les domaines du sport, du spectacle, des affaires et de l'informatique ( le jogging – un casting – une start-up – un driver- un bug).

Certains mots français changent de sens au contact d'autres langues et recouvrent un champ sémantique auquel ils ne renvoyaient pas à l'origine.

Par exemple en France, il est courant qu'on emploie réaliser dans le sens de se rendre compte : je viens de réaliser ce qui s'est passé

Des emprunts russes.

Les emprunts lexicaux se constituent ainsi en un espace fertile de recherche qui suppose le contact entre plusieurs systèmes linguistiques, entre plusieurs cultures, entre plusieurs identités spirituelles.

Макияж - maquillage

Натюрморт – nature morte

Бутик - boutique

Одеколон – eau de Cologne

Шансон – chanson

Портмоне – Porte-monnaie

Сомелье - sommelier

Бистро - bistro

Филе - filet

Фондю - fondu

Новый русский – nouveau riche

Саквояж – sac de voyage

Шифр - chiffre

Шезлонг – chaise longue

Шедевр – chef d’œuvre

Увертюра – ouverture

Партер – par terre

Пленэр – plein air

Рандеву - rendez-vous

Канкан - cancan

Гаджет – gadget

Emprunts dans le domaine militaire

Ботфорты - bottes fortes

Камуфля́ж - camouflage

Абордаж – abordage

Атака - attaque

Авангард - avant-garde

Парашют -parachute

Баррика́да - barricade

Emprunts dans le domaine de la cuisine

Бешамель - béchamel

Бистро - bistro

Фуа-гра́ - Foie gras

Фурше́т - fourchette

Корнишо́н - cornichon

Котлета - côtelette

Бульон - bouillon

Блинчики - blini

Омле́т - omelette

Круасса́н - croissant

D’autres emprunts russes.

  • Визави – vis-à-vis

  • Дежавю – déjà vu

  • Моветон – mauvais ton

  • Пароль - parole

  • Суфлёр - souffleur

  • Фарс – farce (le 1-er avril)

  • Тет а тет - tête à tête

Littérature

  1. Maurice Grevisse et André Goosse, Le Bon Usage, Bruxelles, De Boeck-Duculot, 2008, 1 600 p., § 153, a

  2. Claude Hagège, combat pour le français, pour la diversité des langues et des cultures

  3. Claude Hagège, combat pour le français, au nom de la diversité des langues et des cultures, page 42

  4. Henriette Walter, L'aventure des mots français venus d'ailleurs, Robert Laffont, 1997, p. 17

  5. Wikipedia

Орлова Светлана Евгеньевна

Don State Technical University

LES PME DANS L’ÉCONOMIE FRANÇAISE

The article describes very small and medium enterprises in France, their advantages and disadvantages, their importance for the economy of France.

Key words: VSE(very small enterprises), SME( small and medium enterprises), adaptability, integration, competitive, capital, demand, financial difficulties, international markets.

En Europe, les entreprises individuelles, les TPE (très petites enterprises) et les PME (petites et moyennes enterprises) occupant une place importante dans les systems productifs et crèent de nombreux employs. Cependant, malgré leurs performances, elles rencontrent des obstacles à leur développement.

Beaucoup de PME sont des enterprises à faible intensité, ce qui leur confère une grande souplesse de fonctionnement et leur laisse la possibilité de se reconvertir rapidement sur des maechés plus porteurs. Étant surtout des enterprises de main-d’oeuvre, les PME sont bien adaptées à la production de services, qui ne requiert pas un apport de capital important.

En outre, leur forte integration régionale et leur souplesse de fonctionnement leur permettent de répondre rapidement à tout variation de la demande. Dans les PME en effet, le chef d’entreprise est un “homme- orchestre” assurant les multiples function qui, dans les grandes enterprises, sont fragmentées en plusieurs services (administrative, technique, financier, ressources, humaines…).

De plus, le patron d’une PME est souvant directement impliqué dansson affaire (il y risque ses propres capitaux). Il peut en découler une prise de decision plus rapide et plus efficace que dans les grandes enterprises.

Les PME sont des enterprises pour la plupart spécialisées dans une activité, capable de fournir des prestations de qualité dans des délais raisonnables. C’est d’ailleurs la reconnaissance de leurs competences dans des domains spécifiques qui amènent les grandes enterprises à les faire travailler en sous-traitance dite “de spécialité”.

De plus, les PME supportent des coûts fixes proportionnellement moins élevés que ceux des grandes enterprises (leur capital fixe étant plus faible) et le coût de la main-d’oeuvre y est proportionnellement plus bas (main-d’oeuvre moins syndiquée, moins qualifiée et plus féminisée).

La productivité du facteur travail de ces enterprises reste relativement élevée du fait d’une plus grande implication des salaries, qui s’explique par la taille humaine de ces enterprises et une gestion plus efficace du personnel.

L’importance numérique des PME, due au nombre élevé de creations, ne doit pas occulter la fréquence de leur disparition. Leur fragilité tient à leur faible diversification tant sectorielle que géographique. Beaucoup de PME sont en effet implantXes sur des créneaux d’activité très poinus. Un ralentissement de la demande peut alors engendrer des faillites pour celles qui n’ont pas su anticiper l’évalution et s’y adapter ou qui, ne disposant pas d’une trésorerie suffisante, n’ont pu fair face à des difficulties financiers passagères.

Par ailleurs, peu de PME sont presents sur les marches internationaux, meme si ells assurent 40% des exportations franςaises. Enfin, leur faible attractivité en term de perspectives de carrier offerte les penalize dans la recherché de main-d’oeuvre qualifiée.

Les PME sont aussi pénalisées en matière de financement. Leurs ressources en capitaux propres sont limitées par l’apport personnel du dirigeant et de son entourage. Elles ont plus de difficulties à accede au marché des actions car ells se constituent rarement en société anonyme; ells ont donc recours au credit bancaire pour financer leur développement. Cependant, leur tragilité leur confère une image d’emprunteur à risqué et les amène à supporter des taux d’intérêt plus élevés que la moyenne. Certaines PME n’ont alors pas d’autre alternative que de passer sous tutelle de grands groups pour faire face à leurs besoins en capitaux.

En outré, les PME sont fréquemment dépendantes des commandes des grandes entreprises par le biais de la sous-traitance de capacité. Dans ce context, elles servent souvent d’amortisseur de conjoncture pour les grandes entreprises. Enfin, la dépendance des PME à l’égard des grands est d’autant plus forte que nombre d’entre elles sont l’émanation des précédents.

Certaines grandes entreprises, en effet, essaiment des TPE ou PME dans le domaine de la recherche, souvant par le truchement de leurs cadres, devenant ainsi de véritables “intrapreneurs”. Par ce biais, ces grandes entreprises disposent d’un vivier de prestataires de services dotés certes d’une liberté d’entreprise, mais en assumant aussi tous les risques.

La littérature à consulter :

  1. Denis Clerc Déchiffrer l’économie, Syros-Alternatives

  2. P. Combemale, J.-P. Piriou, Le Nouveau Manuel de sciences économiques et sociales, La Découverte

  3. J. Généreux, Les Vraies Lois de l’économie, éditions du Seuil, 2002

Орлова Светлана Евгеньевна

Don State Technical University, Russia

RUSSIA’S CAR MARKET AFTER THE CRISIS

The article describes Russia’s car market after the crisis, the main resources which will help it to grow and to become more perspective. Also the article describes the ways of saving Russia’s car industry.

Key words: car market, sales, credits, car industry, Avtovaz, car brends, global partnerships, Gaz, banks, rouble.

A year ago Russia’s market for new cars was one of the fastest growing in the world. It had gone from annual sales of less than 1.5m in 2005 to nearly 3m and was poised to overtake Germany as the fourth-biggest car market in the world. Ernst & Young, a consultancy, forecast sales of 5m by 2012. Credit Suisse confidently predicted that sales would grow by at least 12% a year until 2012 and that by then the foreign car firms that had rushed to build factories in Russia would be producing more than 1.5m cars a year.

Although no big market has escaped the financial crisis unscathed, the collapse in Russia was swifter, more savage and shows fewer signs of recovery than anywhere else. Sales this year are expected to be about half those in 2008. In late September AvtoVAZ, Russia’s biggest carmaker, which has 25% of the market, announced the sacking of 28,000 employees, nearly a third of its (admittedly bloated) workforce. Production of Russian-branded cars fell by 68% in the first eight months. Foreign brands, which accounted for nearly all the stellar growth of recent years, saw their sales fall by 58% year-on-year in August, while local production sank by 48.5% to a mere 123,600 vehicles—just as huge amounts of new capacity were coming on stream. In the first six months, Ford, one of the first global carmakers to start production in Russia and by no means the worst hit, made just 24,600 cars at its St Petersburg factory, which is capable of churning out 125,000 a year.

There is no mystery about why Russia’s car market is reeling. Credit, which was used to finance the purchase of about half of all new cars, disappeared almost instantly because Russian banks were unusually dependent on shuttered wholesale markets. Thanks to the economy’s reliance on exports of oil and gas, slumping energy prices immediately hit both earnings and the rouble. The tumbling rouble also meant that foreign car brands suddenly became much less affordable, including those made in Russia, because most of their components are still imported. “We had to force through several price increases in a weakening market,” says Nigel Brackenbury, Ford’s senior executive in Russia.

Suzuki said last month that it was cancelling plans to build a Russian factory, but most foreign firms are hunkering down and waiting for an upturn. Ford has cut one shift in three and is using frequent production breaks to conserve cash. “The market will come back—the wealth has not disappeared,” says Christian Estève, who runs Renault’s operations in Russia. Pointing to car-ownership levels that are still less than a third of Western Europe’s and the age of the Russian fleet, Mr Brackenbury agrees: “We still believe the market will eventually get back to 3m-4m a year.” However, neither expects a rapid bounce.

Worst hit are the two biggest indigenous firms, AvtoVAZ and the carmaking operations of Gaz. AvtoVAZ, in which Renault has a 25% stake, has already run through an emergency loan of 25 billion roubles ($804m) bestowed in June by Vladimir Putin, Russia’s prime minister, and is expecting to make a loss of 32 billion roubles for the year. Mr Estève, who sits on AvtoVAZ’s board, believes that the redundancies just announced will help the firm “find a volume equilibrium”. He insists that Renault has “a long-term commitment” to AvtoVAZ, and that the use of its platforms and technology will revive the Russian firm. But if, as seems certain, AvtoVAZ needs more cash for restructuring, it is unlikely to be forthcoming from Renault. There is talk of VEB, a state-owned development bank, buying convertible bonds.

Gaz, which only 18 months ago was full of acquisitive ambition, is also subsisting on a drip-feed from the Kremlin. There had been hope that the purchase of a majority stake in Opel, General Motors’ European subsidiary, by a consortium involving Sberbank, another largely state-owned bank, would boost Gaz, one of its clients. Sberbank seemed to think it could simply pass on Opel’s technology. But Gaz will have to pay royalties to use GM’s intellectual property, just like any other company.

Mr Putin wants both AvtoVAZ and Gaz to survive, so they probably will. But although Russia’s car market will eventually recover, the same cannot confidently be said of its native carmakers.

The ways of saving Russia’s car industry.

Russia has decided to follow in the footsteps of some European countries and the US by introducing a car scrappage scheme in an attempt to save the country's automotive industry.

Companies which make or assemble cars in Russia, such as Avtovaz, by far Russia's largest carmaker, are hoping that the scheme will bring a turnaround in sales and business fortunes in the short-term.

But experts are sure that the scheme alone will not be enough to truly revive and modernise the Russian car industry.

There are a lot of additional factors which make the process of reforming the Russian car industry much more complicated than in many other countries - among them, the misuse of budget funds and lack of a tradition of creating truly competitive cars.

Also, one of the biggest problems is that too many people are employed by crisis-hit companies, but the carmakers can't fire enough people.

Avtovaz, for example, has one of its plants in Togliatti, which is a typical "monograd" - one-factory town depending on the wellbeing of a single company.

Huge job cuts would unavoidably lead to social unrests, which the Russian government have so eagerly been trying to avoid in any form since Vladimir Putin came to power 10 years ago. For several years the Russian car market was the fastest growing in Europe.

In 2008 most experts were sure that by the end of the year it would overtake Germany to become the largest on the continent.

However, the global financial crisis led to a slump in demand, and in 2009 the Russian car market shrank by half.

At the beginning of 2010 sales continued falling, while serious worries persisted about the future of the whole industry, in particular ailing Avtovaz, which makes Lada cars.

The market share of Avtovaz in Russia was about 70% just 10 years ago.

But after the period of rapid economic growth and the country's car market expansion the company was hit by a collapse in Lada's popularity among Russians.

The firm's market share dived to about 20%.

Foreign cars became much more affordable, as many leading global brands had opened assembly plants in Russia.

Price-quality ratio, which used to be Russian carmakers' main advantage for decades, has evaporated almost completely.

Consumers are increasingly interested in cost-saving cars which offer style, quality and affordability, says Steve Fowler, editor of “What Car” magazine.

However, the whole idea of creating Avtovaz was based mostly on affordability alone. The carmaker was set up with Fiat's help in the 1960s.

Investment bank Renaissance Capital pointed out in its research note, published by Vedomosti business daily at the beginning of February, that Russian carmakers were able to compete with foreign companies in price only but not in quality or reliability of their cars, "which means their market share will be shrinking gradually".

Nikolay Kachurin, Top Gear Russia's editor-in-chief, says that Russian cars are many years behind an average European passenger car.

To some extent, though, this is an advantage for Avtovaz's relatively cheap and really dated Lada Classic models - it is much easier and cheaper to conduct repair works on them in your own backyard in comparison with more modern cars.

One of the questions debated by industry analysts is whether Russia really needs to have its own car brands.

Mr Fowler believes that there is nothing wrong when a country does not have its own models.

"But I'm British," he adds, meaning that in the UK the situation has been like that for many years. All mass production car plants in the country are owned by foreign companies.

However, Nikolay Kachurin, Top Gear Russia's editor-in-chief disagrees.

In his opinion, a country as big as Russia, with its huge industrial potential, needs its own cars.

"If the country can make really good tanks, why can't they make quite a competitive car?" he says.

"It is a matter of reputation, but Russia needs it." Interestingly, for decades Russia's carmakers have been showing lots of concept cars at different industry events, but many years later only several of them were turned into models being sold to consumers.

A lack of investment has been the main problem for the companies.

"They had no funds to turn their concept cars into mass-production models. They are still implementing five-10 year-old plans," says Dmitry Belkin, an automotive industries expert from the Prime-Tass news agency.

Meanwhile, as Mr Fowler points out, "it is becoming increasingly fast to make a concept car", and there are about 480 models available now in the UK.

Mr Kachurin believes that there are enough good Russian engineers and designers in the car industry.

But, he adds, the lack of money does not let the engineering projects be turned into mass-production models, causing the best Russian designers to flee to foreign companies in order to see their ideas brought to life.

As Mr Fowler says: "Developing a car from scratch costs billions of dollars."

Besides, it seems Avtovaz does not have a lot of time to modernise its model list, because its foreign competitors have already been developing new cheaper budget cars amid the recent economic crisis and new environmental principles.

Experts agree that the Russian car market remains attractive in the long-term for both current and potential investors, as the number of cars per person in the country is much lower than in the West.

Most analysts believe that a combination of well-controlled government investment and the working scrappage scheme might help revive the market.

There is also a wide consensus that the best way for the Russian companies to move forward is to use know-how provided by their foreign partners.

One of the best and recent examples of successful global partnerships is Dacia Logan, a car made by Renault and its Romanian subsidiary Dacia.

Last autumn, the French carmaker agreed to expand its involvement in Avtovaz. Among other steps, Renault is likely to provide its budget model as the platform to change Lada's fortunes.

To some extent, this development might please those who want Russian companies to produce their own branded cars.

At the same time, it is in line with the global business trend of joining forces.

"At the end of the day that is exactly what has been happening in the Russian market," says Mr Belkin.

"We are getting to the place where the whole world has already go to."

As Mr Fowler points out, even BMW and Mercedes have been trying to work together on some projects - something impossible just several years ago.

Literature

  1. “Russia after the Global Financial Crisis” Clifford G. Gaddy and Barry W. Ickes

  2. journal “Finantial times”

  3. journal “Russia now”

  4. web site about car market in Russia

  5. web site about Russia’s car market

  6. web site about business in Russia

  1. web site about investment in car industry

  1. web site about Russian-American business

  1. article about the crisis in Russia’s car market

Полушкина Мария Олеговна

Don State Technical University, Russia

Las innovaciOnes de los scientíficos españoles

This article presents the most interesting inventions of different scientists. It notices that the government of different countries plays a great role in innovations development. It also displays that innovations have a good influence on people.

Keywords: innovations, scientists, science, government, invent.

Nos parece que ya se ha inventado todo que necesitamos. Todo es mecanizado: la lavadora nos libra de toda clase de preocupaciones con lavado. El lavaplatos friega nuestra vajilla. El aspirador nos ayudó a olvidar la escoba. No podemos imaginar nuestra vida sin coches, teléfonos móviles, Internet, máquinas combinadas de cocina y etc. Pero los científicos no pueden pararse y encuentran las cosas que hasta ahora necesitamos mucho pero no nos damos cuenta. Algunas cosas son objetos de uso corriente, algunas resuelven los problemas del decoro, y otras son tan curiosoas y interesantes!

Billetera que controla lo que gastas

Los científicos de España han creado una billetera que podría ser la solución de los problemas que tenemos todos los que somos manirrotos y gastamos más de la cuenta.

La cartera, hace 3 cosas por medio de la conexión bluetooh que lleva, lo que la comunicará con el móvil: si tenemos dinero y gastamos poco, la cartera estará hinchada, si no, de desinflará conforme vayamos gastando. Además, por cada transacción que realice el banco en nuestra cuenta, la billetera vibrará.Y por último, la billetera es capaz de impedir abrirse cuando lleguemos al límite marcado, no dejándonos abrirla para sacar más dinero.

Armario 3D

Para aquellas personas que llegan a casa y dejan todo tirado en el primer sitio que tienen a mano, les este armario va a encantar. No tendrán que pensar donde dejar las cosas ni como colocarlas, simplemente lo que deberán hacer es pasar por delante y las dejas incrustadas. Por fin queda el modelo 3D de lo que han puesto por delante, seguros que más de uno podría hacer auténticas obras de arte.

i-Duck

Si una persona necesita permanentemente escuchar música o su emisora preferida de radio, incluso cuando está tomando un baño, se ha creado para ella el i-duck, un sistema de emisor-altavoz wireless al que podrá conectar su reproductor digital.

Este patito obviamente flota, es resistente al agua y se puede suponrlo que al jabón, lleva una radio integrada, y permite oír la música sin peligro que la fuente de audio se moje ni tener que llevar auriculares, siempre tan antiestéticos, en la bañera.

Puede ser muy útil para familias con niños pequeños, facilitando la diaria tarea del baño.

Manos libres

El mayor problema de los lavabos públicos es la puerta. Toda la suciedad, gérmenes, etc. acaban en la maneta de la puerta del lavabo. Una persona debe salir del lavabo pero no quiere abrir la sucia puerta con sus manos que acaba de lavar. Está atrapado: o se mancha las manos o tiene que esperar a que entre alguien dejándole dentro de la mortal trampa.

Para evitar esta incómoda situación se ha creado el ToeOpener, una maneta para abrir las puertas de cierre por muelle sin necesidad de utilizar las manos, utilizando un pie, o en su defecto una muleta.

Aparte de la hipótesis inicial del lavabo, puede ser útil para puertas de garajes, almacenes, y en general lugares en los que podemos salir con las manos ocupadas. Es mas barato añadir el ToeOpener que cambiar la puerta a una batiente.

Lámpara camaleón

Es un aparato que ilumine (lámpara) y que se adapte al color de la superficie donde está (camaleón). Es ideal para los que no pueden encontrar la lampara conveniente para su interior. Ahora no hay ningun problema! Lo que necesita es ponerla sobre la superficie con el color que le gusta.

El despertador que estimula tu cerebro

Levantarse por la mañana es la peor batalla a la que debemos enfrentarnos diariamente. Muchas veces apagas el despertador tan profundamente dormido que no sales de la cama y luego toca correr. La mejor manera para que esto no ocurra es intentar apagar el despertador de tal manera que estimules tanto tu cerebro que no puedas volver a dormirte. Para eso tenemos el IQ Alarm.

Es un despertador que suena como cualquier otro pero para silenciarlo es necesario responder de 1 a 3 preguntas de lógica, como las de los test de inteligencia (dificultad ajustable, claro, no hace falta ser Einstein para poder apagarlo), esto hará que tu cerebro salga del letargo de la noche y se active para afrontar el duro día que tienes por delante (si no fuera así no tendrías despertador).

Por cierto, está todo pensado, la batería no se puede quitar fácilmente por lo que tendrás que responder a las preguntas casi obligatoriamente, además se van actualizando por WiFi para que no te las aprendas (estos tíos piensan en todo). Y ya aprovechan la conexión para ponerte el tiempo de tu ciudad. Otra genialidad geek al servicio del ciudadano. Otra cosa es que lo estampes contra la pared…

Cepillo y pasta, todo en uno

Cuando viajamos siempre es interesante ahorrar espacio, y a veces el neceser de higiene crece de manera exponencial. Para ayudarnos en este ahorro y evitar posibles olvidos se ha diseñado el Twist&Brush, un proyecto de cepillo de dientes que lleva la pasta incorporada en el mango. La pasta se aplique girando la base del mango.

Sillón salvapiernas

Es un sillón para dos personas sentadas a diferente nivel, una versión actualizada del clásico confidente, pero con las dos personas mirando en la misma dirección, lo que es muy práctico para ver la tele un vez pasada la pasión inicial. También puede ser muy útil para reyes magos del Corte Inglés, Papá Noël del Carrefour o similares, todo el día haciéndose fotos con los niños. Ya que vas a acabar con la retinas achicharradas por los flashes, por los menos que tengas las piernas descansadas.

iPad - ahora más cómodo

Los tablets, con el iPad a la cabeza, están arrasando. Cada vez más gente se apunta a navegar con esas ligeras tabletas, pero cuando se trata de introducir contenido, la cosa cambia. Ese teclado virtual está lejos de ser operativo en manos de aquellos que están en la otra punta de la brecha digital.

Hay mucha gente mayor a la que incluso los teclados de ordenador tradicionales les parecen un invento poco práctico, y recuerdan con nostalgia la eficiencia de las viejas Underwood y Olivetti que dominaron en su juventud.

Para ellos hoy hay una gran noticia. Apple y Olivetti se han unido para crear un dispositivo espectacular: el TypeScreen. Una máquina de las de antes, con sus enorme teclas negras, redondas y espaciadas, pero que en lugar de imprimir sobre hojas de papel, lo hacen golpeando suavemente sobre la pantalla del iPad (compatible también con el iPad 2).

No hay problemas con los gatos

Cada familia que tiene un gato sé un problema de distracción de su animal doméstico. A veces cuando vuelvan a casa se encuentran sus zapatillas mordidas, o peor, que parezca que están bien pero que tengan un regalo dentro. El Frolicat es un dispositivo que lanza un haz láser de manera aleatoria con la intención de “entretener” a su mascota. La bestia perseguirá la luz y aunque lo alcance no tendrá nada que cazar. ¡Si quieren uds que sus animales se entretengan necesitan este dispositivo!

Pero todo eso no podría aparecer sin ayuda de los gobiernos de los países donde trabajan estos scientíficos. Por elemplo, en EE.UU. hay conocido Valle de selício. En cada universidad española hay especiales departamentos de ciencias, donde todos los estudiantes tratan de inventar algo. Ademas, allí hay Museos de ciencias, adonde van alumnos para ver la ciencia “en vivo”. Estos museos son construidos por dinero del gobierno y las los precios para entradas para los visitantes son míseros. Así el gobierno español cria a los scientíficos desde la niñez.

Estas innovaciónes tienen muchas ventajas. Hacen nuestra vida más comoda. Pero además nos hacen ser creativos, desarollan nuestra fantasía. Nos dan un impulso para que seamos innovadores nosotros mismos.

Referencias

  1. /valencia/2011/04/12/premian-tres-valencianos-exposicion-invenciones-ginebra/798207.html

Полушкина Мария Олеговна

Don State Technical University, Russia

Mortgage problems in different countries and their solution

This article deals with the mortgage problems in different countries. It compares the mortgage market in Russia and the European one. It also discusses ways to solve the problems in housing.

Keywords: mortgage, housing, Russia, affordable, government, rate, problem.

5 million Russian families were waiting for the subsidized housing in 2010. Even in Moscow, where the accommodation problems can be solved more effectively than in other regions of our country, this is a bread-and-butter issue too. This year accommodations have been given to people who have been standing in the queue since 1990! The situation in other regions is worse – some families have to wait for 25 or 30 years.

Unfavourable living conditions lead to birth rate decrease, prevent new families found. Housing construction development can activate other branches of industry like engineering industry, cement production and etc. These branches development mean new working places creation and employment growth.

But the point is that the government doesn’t have enough means to supply all the wanting with accommodation. That is why affordable mortgage becomes more and more urgent theme nowadays. Unfortunately, currently a very small part of Russian families can afford themselves to get a new apartment using mortgage. In 2010 only 187,3 mortgage credits were given to the sum of 234,2 billion roubles. It’s only 8% of all the credits which were raised that year.

And what are the credit extension conditions in other countries?

According to press account this year in China an estimated 65 million apartments across the country have been bought as speculative investments and sit empty. The reason is mortgage credit affordability. Chinese families can raise a 4-6,5% mortgage rate. That is why a lot of Chinese people prefer investing their money in accommodation.

France.

Demand for property in France appears to be strong, with the number of overseas enquiries for homes in the country rising.
Comments from French estate agent Leggett Immobilier suggest that the country has put the recent global economic troubles behind it and is now an attractive market for investors to by in.
So far in 2011, the firm reports that it has seen an almost 100 per cent increase in new buyer enquiries compared to last year's figures.
The stability offered in France is proving attractive to international property investors and reports suggest that the increasing demand is also being driven by mortgage rates, which are at their lowest levels since the Second World War (over 3,3 -3,6%).
"Enquiry levels from both shows are substantially up from both 2009 and 2010," managing director Trevor Leggett said.
"This is particularly the case for property on the Cote D'Azur where our representatives have already closed a significant number of sales this year."
Meanwhile, according to the latest figures from foreign exchange company Moneycorp, Germany, France, Italy and Ireland all proved popular destinations last month. 

United States.

Mortgage rates eased this week for the first time in a month, as signs of inflation remained subdued, Freddie Mac said in releasing the results of its weekly Primary Mortgage Market Survey.

Rates on 30-year fixed-rate mortgages averaged 4.8 percent with an average 0.7 point for the week ending April 21, down from 4.91 percent last week and 5.07 percent a year ago.

This year, rates on 30-year fixed-rate loans have ranged from 4.71 percent in early January to a high of 5.05 percent in February. The 30-year fixed-rate mortgage hit an all-time low in Freddie Mac records dating to 1971 of 4.17 percent during the week ending Nov. 11.

"Low inflation is keeping mortgage rates at bay," said Freddie Mac Chief Economist Frank Nothaft in a statement. "The core consumer price index rose just 0.1 percent in March, below the market consensus forecast. The 12-month growth rate in core prices was 1.2 percent, which is also rather low by historical standards."

United Kingdom.

Overseas property owners with euro-denominated mortgages are struggling with the effects of the first European interest rate rise since July 2008.

Mortgage rates are starting to rise in Europe and the currency looks increasingly overvalued against the pound and the dollar.

The euro has strengthened since the rate hike was announced, and the weakening pound has proved too much for many UK overseas property owners.

Adam Jordan, a senior currency expert at money transfer specialists Moneycorp, said that the company had seen a 40% rise in the number of people repatriating large sums of money to the UK during the first quarter of 2011 compared with the last quarter of 2010.

Jordan fears that things will get even worse when the European Central Bank (ECB) increase interest rates again in September of this year, as many experts believe is inevitable.

"The markets are expecting a rate increase in the UK in October, but this is more uncertain because we haven't seen the Bank of England response to this week's inflation figures," says Jordan. "It's possible that the gap between interest rates in the UK and abroad could widen further."

Recent figures from Smart Currency Exchange show that the average increase in European mortgage repayments after the ECB rate rise will be £1,750 a year. Rates are expected to increase further to a possible 1.75%.

Moneycorp’s Jordan says that he has seen an increased number of clients choosing to re-mortgage their main home in the UK in order to pay off the mortgage on their second home overseas and avoid making regular payments in euros.

Charles Purdy, director of Smart Currency Exchange, said that he was advising customers to be "very realistic" about the exchange rates they will get against the euro.

“People need to realize that the size of their mortgage has effectively increased,” he says, “and there is inflation in Europe, too, so that makes it even worse. People who are buying abroad now are more worldly wise than they were a few years ago, but I am telling them that they need to budget for €1.10 to the pound rather than €1.20 or €1.30."

Spain.

New figures show that there was an increase in the number of property sales in Spain in 2010 with buyers spending more on homes than they did in the previous year. Whilst the report suggested a positive attitude towards the Spanish Property market heading into 2011, other data has shown that property prices in Spain fell in the first quarter of this year for the tenth consecutive period.

Recent figures from the Spanish Ministry of Housing showed that there was a 5.9 per cent increase in the number of sales in Spain compared to the previous year. In addition, data from the Bank of Spain showed that foreign investors spent 2.9 per cent more on property in 2010 than they did in 2009.

The final quarter of 2010 showed the highest year on year improvements, suggesting that overseas investors were finally returning to Spain to take advantage of low cost property.

However, whilst there have been positive noises surrounding the struggling Spanish Property market, the Spanish Ministry of Housing also recently reported that the average price of houses and apartments fell by 4.6 per cent between March 2010 and March 2011. Prices fell 2.5 per cent from the previous quarter; the tenth consecutive quarterly decline.

The European Mortgage Federation also found that Spain, which has the highest unemployment rate in Europe after almost two years of recession, also has the highest ratio of outstanding floating-rate mortgage loans in the region.

Fernando Encinar, head of research at , Spain’s largest property website, said: “Rate rises discourage buyers and sellers dropped asking prices before rates increased to encourage sales.”

The European Central Bank recently raised the benchmark interest rate to 1.25 per cent after maintaining it at a record low of 1 per cent since May 2009 in a reaction to the global financial crisis.

Ireland.

Banks have been giving their initial reaction to a 0.25 percentage point in interest rates announced by the ECB.

This will mean a similar rise for homeowners on tarcker mortgages, which are linked to the ECB rate.

Bank of Ireland and its ICS subsidiary have also announced that they will be raising their fixed mortgage rates. The increases - ranging from 0.7 to 1.3 percentage points - will come into effect from April 15. Bank of Ireland and ICS tracker rates will rise by a quarter-point from Wednesday April 13.

Jonathan Byrne, the bank's head of mortgages in the Republic of Ireland, said fixed rate mortgages had become increasingly costly for the bank in recent months, and its current fixed mortgage rates were 'not sustainable'.

'While we have resisted increasing rates until now, we have no choice but to make this move to ensure we remain open for business,' he added.

National Irish Bank has said it will not be increasing its variable mortgage rate from the current 3.4% following the ECB announcement. The bank also said it would not increase fixed rates, though its ECB-linked tracker mortgages will rise in line with the 0.25-point increase.

And what is the mortgage situation in Russia?

Prime Minister Vladimir Putin has delivered a report on the government’s performance in 2010 in the State Duma on 20 of April 2011. And of course he has mentioned the problem of mortgage in Russia:

“A major part of the funds received, 50 billion roubles, was spent on the support for mortgages. Thus, these funds enabled Vnesheconombank to set aside 50 billion roubles for mortgages.

There is a general revival of the demand in the housing market. The number of mortgages grew 2.5 times last year. The average interest rate is dropping. In 2009 it was 14.3% in roubles, and last year it dropped to 13.1%. Today you can get a loan at 12.5%. The rate depends on the creditor and the various terms and sometimes it is lower but the average is still 12.5%, which is still too high. It is still an expensive loan for the time being. This is why we have decided to make a mortgage more accessible.”

So the average interest now is lower than last year, but it continues being minimum twice as high as in Europe.

But not only the rate plays a great role in mortgage affordability. People’s incomes and accommodation price signify too.

Average salary of a German is $4.000 a month. American has the same salary. A Frenchman gets over $2.710 and Spanish earns $2.600.

At the same time average square metre accommodation price in Berlin is $3.200, in Washington - $2.700, in Paris - $4.800 and in Madrid it’s $4.200.

The situation in Russia differs drastically. According to Russian statistics centre, average salary in our country in 2010 is 20.584 roubles ($736). And accommodation square metre in Moscow is $4.500. Even that fact that the prices in other cities are lower (three or five times lower than in our capital) not every Russian can buy a flat with the help of mortgage.

So it is obvious that mortgage credits in Russia are 3 of 5 times less affordable than in Europe.

Is there any solution of this problem?

Vladimir Putin is trying to solve this problem: “In 2010, we made the decision to allocate 250 billion roubles to support mortgage lending. Vnesheconombank joined with partner banks to launch a mortgage refinancing programme, which will allow banks to issue loans at a rate of 11% per annum for the purchase of housing in new buildings. The programme will reach its peak in 2011-2012. All necessary funding for its implementation has been set aside in Vnesheconombank.

According to our estimates, about 540-580 billion roubles in mortgages will be issued in 2011, and we will be able to exceed the pre-crisis level of 650 billion roubles in 2012. To be sure, in order to change the price of mortgages, we will also have to continue to combat inflation and to create favourable macroeconomic conditions. It is hard to achieve this goal by some special means. We must continue our work to bring mortgage interest rates down to 5-6% per annum.”

So, banks play a great role in mortgage rate. They have an opportunity to downsize the credit rates but of course they don’t want to do it. Why do they need allocation of 250 billon roubles to do that while all the European banks do it without government help? Anyway, there is hope that this emission will be effective.

But the government shouldn’t only give money to the banks. On the one hand, a new effective government mechanism is necessary. For example, the help of flexible tax policy can be helpful. The income tax decrease can stimulate bankers to lower rates.

On the other hand, interest in mortgage credits can be ensured with the help of accommodation price decrease. It can be implemented in two ways. First of all, building volume should be extended. Also new technologies can be involved in building. This will give an opportunity to build modern, ecological and cheap accommodation.

Moreover, the government should increase wages and salaries of Russian people, because inflationary process in our country is inevitable.

At the same time, it should be mentioned that other countries have problems with mortgage, too.

China.

The rapid rise of housing prices up to 10 per cent in comparison to the last year in China has brought with it a sizable increase in the scope of personal mortgages at banks throughout China. By the end of the first half of this year, personal mortgages made up 24% of the loan portfolio of the average Chinese bank. The increase at individual banks ranged from 10%-30% year over year, with the Industrial and Commercial Bank of China holding the largest amount of personal mortgages, totaling 452.5 billion RMB. The government of Beijing, Shanghai and other cities have limited the number of dwelling objects which can be the property of one Chinese person.

United States.

It became evident with JPMorgan Chase’s results on Wednesday. The company beat earnings estimates only because it made so much money trading commodities. The mortgage picture was grim — a $1 billion charge for the increased cost of mortgage servicing thanks to new regulations, and another $650 million for increased foreclosure costs.

“It’s more people, more costs, more compliance rules,” JPMorgan CEO Jamie Dimon told reporters on a conference call after the bank’s results were released. “It’s going to cost more money” to service mortgages and complete foreclosures.

Those costs rose while JPMorgan’s portfolio of residential mortgage loans shrank 12 percent.

In part, Dimon blames the rising costs on the fact that state attorneys general haven’t been able to reach a universal settlement with the banks on their mortgage servicing. He says it’s making the problem worse. “We have homes sitting there for 500 days rotting that we can’t do anything about,” he said. “That’s not good for anybody.”

Certainly the market’s not thrilled about the deteriorating mortgage picture. JPMorgan’s shares closed at $44.89 Friday [JPM 44.89 -0.08 (-0.18%) ], down 3.5 percent from when earnings were announced.

The story’s no better at Bank of America — actually a bit worse. The country’s biggest bank took $3.8 billion in charges related to mortgages.

BofA took a $1.4 billion dollar hit to revenue, about $1 billion of which came from underestimating the number of bad mortgages it would have to buy back from various parties. About half of that came from bigger-than-expected demands from Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac to buy back mortgages. The other half covered part of BofA’s buyback settlement with monoline insurer Assured Guaranty [AGO 17.60 3.43 (+24.21%) ].

Then there’s that increased cost of dealing with foreclosures that Jamie Dimon was complaining about. That took a $1.6 billion bite out of BofA’s earnings.

“We don't expect the mortgage picture to improve significantly for several quarters,” said outgoing CFO Chuck Noski. Probably that's why Bank of America’s shares hit $12.82 at the close [BAC 12.82 -0.31 (-2.36%) ], down 2.4 percent for Friday.

That doesn’t bode so well for Wells Fargo [WFC 29.89 -0.26 (-0.86%) ] whose earnings come out next week.

”Wells Fargo is worrisome if they take a servicing hit like JPMorgan,” says Rochdale Securities analyst Dick Bove. “They don’t have the trading offset.” Shares of Wells Fargo ended the day at $29.89 — down 4.68 percent since Wednesday.

Citigroup relegated its consumer finance business to CitiHoldings — the businesses it wants to ditch. Nonetheless, the business has been performing fairly well, even in its current holding pattern. Citi [C 4.42 -0.01 (-0.23%) ] also has a bigger investment bank and international exposure to offset any troubles in its mortgage portfolio.

Hong Kong.

Hong Kong’s planned sale of nine residential sites in the second quarter signals the government will use more regular land auctions to help curb a two-year surge in housing prices, Credit Suisse Group AG said.

The government will sell a site on April 27, its first auction since November, and another three on May 12, according to a Lands Department statement yesterday. It’s also considering announcing its land sale schedule at the beginning of each quarter, Financial Secretary John Tsang told lawmakers at the Legislative Council yesterday.

Housing prices in the city, ranked the world’s most expensive place to buy a home by Savills Plc (SVS), have gained more than 65 percent in the past two years on record-low mortgage rates and an influx of buyers from China. The government in November increased property transaction taxes and pledged to boost land supply amid public protest that housing prices are becoming un-affordable and as the central bank warned about the risk of a “credit-fueled property bubble.”

“The government has effectively resumed regular auction to regain control over the pace of land supply,” Credit Suisse analysts Cusson Leung and Joyce Kwock wrote in a note yesterday. “The determination to increase land supply is shown.”

The nine sites being sold this quarter will generate 2,650 new units, Tsang said.

Most government land sales in recent years have been done through the so-called application system where developers’ proposals to buy the sites trigger the auction. That system was put in place in 2002 to support falling home prices triggered by the Asian financial crisis that started in 1997. Government- initiated land auctions were partially resumed last year.

Ireland.

BANK OF Ireland has said that mortgage arrears will rise further but that the rate of increase has declined, as it reported a loss of €950 million for 2010, a drop of 57 per cent on a year earlier.

The bank faces the prospect of falling into State control as it must raise €5.2 billion, including €1 billion of contingent capital, after the Central Bank’s stress tests.

The bank said 9,169 customers, or 5.6 per cent of its 161,000 mortgage accounts, had missed at least three monthly repayments at the end of March. Arrears of 90 days or more on €28 billion of Irish mortgages rose to 4.17 per cent at end 2010 from 2.76 per cent in 2009.

“The numbers are stabilising.Arrears figures will probably go up a little bit more but the trajectory is coming down,” said the bank’s chief executive Richie Boucher.

He declined to comment on whether the bank would, like AIB, consider debt forgiveness for distressed borrowers. It would continue to work with customers on a case-by-case basis, he said.

Arrears of 90 days or more on the bank’s €7 billion Irish buy-to- let mortgages book increased to 5.9 per cent from 3.4 per cent.

But the charge taken overall on bad debts fell 34 per cent to €1.9 billion from €2.8 billion in 2009. “It’s a clean story to understand,” said Mr Boucher. “The loan losses, we are comfortable, are coming down. We have had the stress test of all time,” said Mr Boucher. The bank’s shares were flat as it failed to disclose any details of how it would raise the extra capital required.

Most of the impairment charge – some €2.2 billion of the bad debts – related to losses on loans transferred to the National Asset Management Agency (Nama).

“We see Nama as being done for Bank of Ireland – the hits have been taken,” said Mr Boucher.

The number of impaired loans jumped to €11 billion or 9 per cent of the bank’s €119 billion loan book at the end of 2010 from €8 billion or 7 per cent the previous year.

The bank would be “highly capitalised” after raising the Central Bank’s capital bill, which stress-tested the bank’s loans for a “very, very extreme downside case”.

The bank was supported by €23 billion of discount loans from the European Central Bank and €8 billion in emergency loans from the Irish Central Bank last December.

These figures have not dropped since then, said finance director John O’Donovan.

Central bank loans accounted for almost a quarter of the bank’s funding at the end of last year.

The increase in Central Bank funding was due to a loss of €20 billion in deposits over last year as a result of credit downgrades that led to corporate deposit withdrawals. Mr O’Donovan said deposits had risen to more than €66 billion from €65 billion last December.

Mr Boucher said the bank aimed to repay all Central Bank funding well before the end of 2013 when it must shed €30 billion of €119 billion in loans under the deleveraging plan. The bank’s income fell as “unsustainably high” deposit rates squeezed the net interest margin by a 0.18 of a percentage point. The margin is unlikely to rise in 2011.

But the government shouldn’t only give money to the banks. On the one hand, a new effective government mechanism is necessary. For example, the help of flexible tax policy can be helpful. The income tax decrease can stimulate bankers to lower rates.

On the other hand, interest in mortgage credits can be ensured with the help of accommodation price decrease. It can be implemented in two ways. First of all, building volume should be extended. Also new technologies can be involved in building. This will give an opportunity to build modern, ecological and cheap accommodation.

Moreover, the government should increase wages and salaries of Russian people, because inflationary process in our country is inevitable.

The mortgage real estate market analysis shows that the problem of mortgage affordability is the most characteristic to Russia and not to other countries. But at the same time solutions of this problem exist.

Mortgage credits can become more affordable with the help of the following ways:

  • Flexible government tax policy can stimulate bankers to lower mortgage rates.

  • Building volume should be extended;

  • Use of the new technologies can reduce the price of new buildings;

  • Wages and salaries should be marked up;

  • The use of special governmental programmes can ensure the accommodation affordability for special citizen categories (young families, budgetary sphere representatives like teachers, doctorsa and so on)

Moreover, the government should analyze all the problems that have encountered other countries which use mortgage to solve housing problems. China, Hong Kong, Ireland and other countries experiment shows that the government should react sensitively and in proper time to the changes in the mortgage market. Housing and mortgage policy should be strategically cheched and balanced. Other countries experience displays that too low rages can’t always ensure the tension decrease in the real estate market.

Literature

1. Russian government statistics service. /

2. Mortgage credit in Russia // /news/18_10_2010/7026880/

3. For Many Chinese Men, No Deed Means No Dates. The New York Times. Published: April 14, 2011

4. French property demand remains high. /france/property/news/french-property-demand-remains-high_311309.html. Article Date : 20 April 2011

5. Mortgage rates ease for first time in a month. By Inman News, Thursday, April 21, 2011.

6. Euro rate rise hammers overseas mortgage holders. .uk/news_article.asp?id=5164

7. Mixed messages from Spanish property market. /view_news/2115/

8. Russia - Prime Minister Vladimir Putin delivers a report on the government’s performance in 2010 in the State Duma. /pages/21_April_2011_29.php

9. /chinas-hidden-personal-mortgage-problems/

10. /news/2011-04-14/hong-kong-land-sales-plan-means-government-will-use-auctions-to-curb-boom.html

Поповой Дарьи

Don State Technical University

PROGRÉS TECHNIQUE ET INNOVATIONS

This article is about innovations, their role in a present world ,their economic, social, and industrial impact. The author deals with French-Russian cooperation, some the most important French innovations of 2010.

Key words: innovations, industrial boom, French-Russian cooperation, TGV, product innovations , process innovations , economic advantages, research, development.

Les different types d’innovations:

Une innovation peut-être définie comme l’utilisation économique (productive) d’une invention. L’économiste d’origine autrichienne Joseph A. Schumpeter classe les innovations selon leur effet sur l’économie:

-innovations de produits (de nouveaux biens);

-innovations dans les inputs (apparition de nouvelles sources d’énergie ou de nouvelles matiéres premiéeres);

-innovations de procédés (de nouvelles méthods de production);

-innovations organisationelles (de nouvelles organizations, par exemple, l’organisation scientifique du travail);

-innovations commerciales (de nouvelles méthods commerciales, comme le téléachat);

-innovations de marchés (de nouveaux marchés: le marchés des intivirus informatiques par exemple).

Impact économique, industriel et sociétal

Au plan scientifique, certains voient dans des nanotechnologies un tournant majeur, d’autres une continuité. Une chose est sûre, l’émergence du nanomonde amorce une nouvelle révolution technologique, dont les impacts vont influencer largement la société... Au même titre que l’arrivée du numérique a modifié les modes de vie.

Les nano, un enjeu économique

Le marché mondial des nanotechnologies, encore dans ses prémices en 2001, était déjà estimé à 40 milliards d'euros. Aujourd’hui, avec l’engagement massif des budgets de recherche et développement pour l’accélération de l’innovation, les estimations s’affolent : un marché de plusieurs centaines de milliards de dollars annuels s'ouvrira d'ici 2010. Les biens et les services générés par cette dynamique pourraient même représenter jusqu’à mille milliards de dollars chaque année entre 2010 et 2015, selon les prévisions de la National Science Foundation américaine.

Notamment, l’investissement massif dans les matières premières telles que les métaux ou les céramiques sera en baisse, grâce au développement de nanomatériaux nouveaux, ainsi qu’à une nouvelle approche de fabrication des objets atome par atome ("bottom up"), qui pourrait réduire les quantités de résidus. Autre aspect, l’économie d’énergie via l’optique par exemple. Des réductions de consommation de 50% de l’éclairage public sont attendues dans les prochaines années. Des émetteurs à très haut rendement seront vingt fois plus efficaces que les ampoules actuelles qui restituent en lumière seulement 3 à 4% de l’énergie (le reste se disperse en chaleur). Déjà, un record a été établi au Laboratoire de physique de la matière condensée de Palaiseau : des diodes électroluminescentes fournissent 28% de lumière. Leur objectif : restituer jusqu’à 70% de lumière.

Dans cette course économique effrénée, de lourds investissements préalables s’imposent. Si le prix d’un composant électronique baisse, les financements nécessaires pour sa fabrication ne vont cesser d’augmenter. Avec le rythme de renouvellement des techniques imposé par la miniaturisation des composants et des structures, le coût de mise en œuvre des procédés double tous les trente six mois. Il représente déjà cinq à six milliards de dollars chaque année à travers le monde. A cet impératif s’ajoute l’ombre d’une impasse technologique, qui demande un investissement d’autant plus grand : La célèbre Loi de Moore prévoyant que le nombre de transistors par circuit de même taille double tous les dix-huit mois, augmentant les performances électroniques, pourrait atteindre ses limites d’ici 2010.

Le boom industriel à venir

Cette révolution de la taille des composants et de la structure des matériaux aura un impact dans les domaines manufacturés les plus divers, dont la production actuelle est réalisée à la précision du micromètre : l’électronique, l’aéronautique, la défense, l’environnement ou les matériaux de construction par exemple. En jeu, des propriétés mécaniques, électroniques, thermiques, magnétiques et catalytiques nouvelles à exploiter.

Entre autres avancées majeures pour l’industrie : l’amélioration de la catalyse. Cette réaction chimique accélère déjà les processus de fabrication des matériaux, sans les modifier. Ses performances vont rapidement évoluer : les nanopoudres remplacent les poudres actuelles de métaux lourds rares tels que le platine ou le palladium. Avec davantage de surface, elles les rendent plus efficaces en consommant moins de matière. Mieux, à l’échelle nano, des métaux tels que l’or, inertes à l’état macroscopique, deviennent très réactifs.

Ces nanoparticules pourraient permettre à l’industrie de s’affranchir des producteurs de matières rares et coûteuses. Les métaux, les polymères et les céramiques seront de moins en moins utilisés. Idem pour l’aluminium et le plastique présents dans les objets du quotidien. L’industrie automobile est visée, notamment. Ces nouvelles catalyses amélioreront le filtrage des pots d’échappement en attirant davantage de molécules indésirables d’hydrocarbure, d’oxydes d’azote ou de carbone, sur une surface d’agrégats d’atomes qui les emprisonnera.

Des applications à s’approprier

Le développement du nanomonde a un impact fort sur le rapport de la société aux technologies, car ses applications s’immiscent déjà dans notre quotidien. Ces objets "nano" sont, pour certains, invisibles à l’œil nu, pour d’autres mêlant inerte et vivant. Le lien de l’utilisateur à la machine semble alors parfois modifié.

Déjà, certains nanomatériaux ou objets sont là. L’industrie des loisirs profite des premières avancées des nanotubes de carbone pour alléger les raquettes de tennis, clubs de golf et autres équipements sportifs. Quant à l’industrie cosmétique, elle intègre des nanoparticules de titane ou d’oxyde de zinc dans les crèmes solaires pour filtrer les rayons UV. Sans parler des nanopuces pour le diagnostic médical du diabète. L’industrie de la microélectronique n’est pas en reste : nanolasers dans les lecteurs de DVD, capteurs, batteries, écrans….

En électronique, les capacités de stockage d’information, d’autonomie énergétique et de communication vont intensifier l’interface entre l’Homme et son environnement via des capteurs et autres actionneurs interconnectés ou appareils portables peu gourmands en électricité (énergie nomade). De nouveaux téléphones et écrans plats - formés de nanoélectrodes, stimulées par une matrice de canons à électrons en nanotubes de carbone - sont en développement. Pour autant, la route vers un ordinateur quantique, qui effectuerait des millions d'opérations en exploitant le principe de superposition quantique, est encore très longue. Quant aux systèmes de surveillance nanométrique, ils devraient permettre l’identification et la localisation, c’est-à-dire la traçabilité des produits, la sécurisation des modes de payement ou l’échange d’informations en ligne.

En santé, prothèses, implants cochléaires ou valves cardiaques en nanomatériaux biocompatibles pourraient voir le jour. Des nanosphères jusqu’à 70 fois plus petites qu’un globule rouge, pourraient même être utilisées pour transporter un principe actif au cœur de l’organe soigner. Fini alors les effets secondaires dans les autres parties du corps, comme c’est le cas avec les traitements contre le sida, les maladies hépatiques ou certains cancers, notamment. Des laboratoires de diagnostic de la taille d’une puce sont également à l’étude, pour des résultats médicaux à moindre coût, plus rapides et plus précis que ceux obtenus à l’aide d’une prise de sang.

Les innovation de 2010.

Les innovations boostent la lute contre les maladies,améliorant les transports et gérent mieux l’énergie; ludiques et culturelles lorsqu’elles embellissent nos loisirs et affinent les technologies:

La voiture électrique: viola sur quoi parient aujourd’hui les constructeurs automobiles,au point d’en avoir fait la star du dernier Salon de Francfort. Et la tendance devrait se confirmer au Mondial de l’auto, à Paris,au mois d’octobre. PSA Peugeot-Citroen lancer sa iOn cet été; BMW doit bientôt tester sa Mini E en France, et Renault annonce quatre lancemets coup sur coup entre 2011 et 2012. Ces announces pourraient presque étonner tant les perspectives du marché de la voiture électrique semblent incertaines, du moins à moyen terme. Selon la plupart des experts,ce mode de propulsion ne pèsera qu’entre 3 et 5% des ventes dans le monde d’ici à 2020-2025. Carlos Ghosn, le PDG de Renault,semble bien le seul à prédire que l’électricité propulsera 10% des voitures neuves dans 10 ans. Indiscutablement,le moteur électrique affiche un meilleur rendement énérgetique et en rejette aucun gaz pollutant. Mais de nombreux doutes subsistent quant à l’autonomie,insuffisante;au surcoût,important; au temps de recharges et à l’absence d’infrastructures adaptées pour recharger sa voiture.

En 2010, la 4e génération de TGV est prete à s’élancer… à 360 km/h! C’est pour l’Italie,son premier acheteur,que ce concentré de technologies quitter les usines Alsom, à Aytré,près de la Rochelle. Les 25 rames,commandées dans une version rouge très Ferrari pour 650 millions d’euros,devraient assurer dès 2011 la liason entre les grandes villes de la peninsule. Il aura fallu plus de 10 ans de recherché pour produire l’AGV(pour Automotrice grande vitesse). Objectif: gagner en vitesse,en modularité et en nombre de places,tout en concervant la spécificité du TGV.

La cooperation scientifique Franco-Russe.

Pour ne pas s’enfermer dans des structures juridiques trop complexes, les deux pays ont privilégié le concept des laboratories conjoints et des réseaux de recherche. Les premières réunissent en un même lieu des chercheures sur des péremètres scientifiques bien definis et les seconds rassemblent universités, organisms de recherché et éventuellement groups industriels sur des objectifs scientifiques bien déterminés. On peut trouver läinformation sur internet

réseau franco-russe de centres d’inovations

Sources:

1.Réseau franco-russe de centres d’innovations

2.Centre national de la recherché scientifique (CNRS) Bureau Russie et pays CEI

3.

4. “Les innovations 2010,qui vont changer la vie”, Science et vie, Janvier 2010

5.”Les grandes questions de l’economie contemporaine”, 2010.

Потеряева Юлия

Don State Technical University, Russia

CORPORATE CULTURE IN THE CONDITIONS OF GLOBALIZATION

This article highlights the importance of well-developed corporate culture and its obvious influence on labour productivity, competitiveness and total profits of the enterprise.

Key words: corporate culture, labour productivity, competitiveness, corporate ethics, profits, human resources, attraction of investments, working efficiency, psychological climate, management style.

The informatization of economics and society is stimulated by globalization of economic relations and tendency of the corporate structures to develop competitive advantages at domestic and world markets by means of adapting advanced scientific, technical and managing achievements. These phenomena cause dissemination of new production control methods changing innercorporate and intercorporate cultures.

The question of managing human resources springs up, the approaches and principles being rather unclear. Human resources make it possible to improve considerably the basic characteristic of modern production – labour productivity. For instance, the increase of working efficiency in the aerospace industry is realized up to 60% due to application of new technology, up to 25% due to optimization of capital investments and up to 15% due to increase in efficiency of labour. It is important that increase of labour productivity, resulted from application of new technology and attraction of investments, will be successful only under the condition of well-organized work, development of capacities and initiative.

In Russia a number of managers consider the strategy, based on attraction of human resources of higher quality, to be excessively costly. But in reality, it is the strategy that ensures a long-term success of business. Whereas it is easy to foresee the limiting impact of capital shortage and its consequences, it is rather complicated to remove the impact of qualitative labour deficit. Consequently, strategic planning of enterprise development should be of more importance than meeting demands of the enterprise in capital.

The success or failure of an enterprise can be directly or indirectly explained by its corporate culture. The management style, psychological climate in the working team, image influence, labour productivity, competitiveness, total profits, etc. Therefore, the manager should foresee the consequences of his decisions for team interrelations and image of the enterprise. The leading corporations successfully combine management of technical preparation, provision, and implementation of production with realization of conduct code, reflecting the basic objectives and ethic values of the enterprise.

The interpretation of the concept “corporate culture” brings out a lot of subjective. The notion of corporate culture is described as our surroundings or environment we live and work in. In this interpretation corporate culture is a system of wealth and intellectual values interacting with each other within an enterprise and reflecting its individuality in behaviour and perception of itself and the environment.

The modern approach to the corporate culture is based on the models of the countries with the developed market economy, which is connected with a high level of provision with material elements of culture. The codes of corporate ethics target at improvement of work and competitiveness of an enterprise.

The code of the corporate ethics

  • defines the order of solution of conflict and unregulated situations.

  • defines and regulates the norms of behaviour and morals in the corporate environment

  • regulates the order of making decisions in complicated economic and other situations.

  • forms a positive image of the company in the business environment.

The essential base of business relations is trust and readiness for cooperation as the precondition for growth of enterprise productivity due to favorably established social relations.

Literature

1.

2.

3.

Пузанова Марина

Don State Technical University, Russia

DIE AUSWIRKUNGEN DER JAPANISCHEN TRAGÖDIE

The article is focused on the tragedy which has happened in Japan. The article deals with the consequences of the event: economic, ecological, gastronomic, social, etc.

Key words: Japan, tragedy, consequences, economy, earthquake, tsunami, radiation, Fukushima, pollution, health

Kürzlich sind alle Menschen der Welt Zeugen der furchtbarsten Tragödie in Japan geworden. Dieses Ereignis hat katastrophale Auswirkungen, die man in drei großen Gruppen teilen kann.

1. Wissenschaftliche Auswirkungen.

Die Hauptstadt Tokio, das größte wirtschaftliche Zentrum des Landes, liegt in einer Entfernung von dem Katastrophenreaktor.

Die Region der Hauptstadt beherbergt 35 Millionen Menschen, das ist mehr als ein Viertel der Gesamtbevölkerung des Landes. Die Region um Tokio ist das wirtschaftliche Herz Japans. Sie steht für fast ein Fünftel des Bruttoinlandsprodukts. Die meisten Firmen haben hier ihren Sitz - und so kommt es, dass in der Hauptstadt-Region auch die meisten der etwa 500 deutschen Firmen ihre Zentralen haben. Einige haben ihre Büros dort schon verlassen.

ANZEIGE

Die große Frage ist, wie lange die japanischen Firmenzentralen noch handlungsfähig sind. "Wenn die nicht mehr entscheiden können, haben wir ein neues Szenario", sagt Detlef Rehn von der GTAI, der Wirtschaftsfördergesellschaft der Bundesrepublik Deutschland.

Der Raum Tokio markiert das nordöstliche Ende der wichtigsten Industrie und Wirtschaftsregion des Landes. Die zieht sich über einige hundert Kilometer in südwestlicher Richtung bis zu den Städten Kobe oder Osaka. Hier haben die Autokonzerne wie Toyota ihre Fabriken, die Elektronik-Industrie sitzt hier. Westlich von Tokio liegen auch die meisten Millionenstädte des Inselreichs.

Die wirtschaftliche Kernregion Japans liegt in einiger Entfernung von der jetzigen Krisenregion im Norden der Hauptinsel Honshu. Die vom Erdbeben, dem Tsunami und von der Atomkatastrophe betroffenen drei Präfekturen sind industriell von untergeordneter Bedeutung. Sie tragen nach Informationen der Commerzbank etwa 6,5 Prozent zum japanischen Sozialprodukt bei.

Das mag wenig sein. Aber in der Krisenregion haben Zulieferer für die Auto- und Elektronik-Industrie ihre Fabriken; so sind Störungen bei der Belieferung von Fabriken im ganzen Lande möglich. Dagegen heißt es in Berichten aus Japan, die beiden Präfekturen Chiba und Kanagawa, die in der westlichen und südlichen Nachbarschaft von Tokio liegen, seien von den Zerstörungen nur wenig betroffen.

Die meisten Wirtschaftsexperten, die sich über die Wirkungen der Katastrophe auf die japanische Ökonomie wie auf die Weltkonjunktur Gedanken machen, greifen auf Daten und Erfahrungen zurück, die das Land 1995 nach dem katastrophalen Erdbeben in der westjapanischen Stadt Kobe machten. Doch in diesem Fall ist einiges anders. Neben der Zerstörung von Immobilien und Infrastruktur droht jetzt auch noch eine radioaktive Katastrophe. Japans Zukunft hängt vor allem davon ab, wie katastrophal die Wirkung der Atomexplosionen von Fukushima sind.

2. Gastronomische Auswirkungen

Die radioaktiv belastete Nahrungsmittel sind sicher gefährlich. Auch bei Brokkoli wurden erhöhte radioaktive Werte gemessen.

In Japan ist Gemüse aufgetaucht, das radioaktiv kontaminiert ist. Immer mehr Sorten dürfen nicht mehr verzehrt werden. Welche Sorten sind besonders betroffen und warum? Und was bedeutet die Belastung für die Gesundheit?

Bestimmte Gemüsesorten in Japan sollen im Umkreis von 30 Kilometern um Fukushima radioaktiv kontaminiert sein. Vor allem Spinat, Kohl, Brokkoli und das in Japan sehr beliebte Blattgemüse Komatsuna. Warum ausgerechnet diese Gemüsesorten? "Weil sie eine besonders große Oberfläche haben", erklärt David Tait vom Max Rubner-Institut in Kiel. Und je größer die Oberfläche der Blätter, desto mehr radioaktive Partikel können sich darauf absetzen, so der Experte für Radioaktivität in Pflanzen und Lebensmitteln. Denn die Radioaktivität kommt zurzeit aus der Luft.

Für Meerestiere und –pflanzen, die Japaner in großen Mengen essen, sehen Experten zurzeit weniger Probleme als für landwirtschaftliche Produkte. Denn im Ozean verteilen sich die radioaktiven Stoffe sehr viel besser, betont Ulrich Rieth vom Bundesinstitut für Fischereiökologie in Hamburg. Trotzdem werden sie in der Nahrungskette weitergegeben. "Fische fressen Plankton, Menschen essen Fische", so Rieth.

3. Ökologische Auswirkungen

Höchste Gefahrenstufe, wenn Radioaktivität im Spiel ist

Erdbeben und Tsunami in Japan haben nicht nur Tausende getötet, verletzt und obdachlos gemacht - weiteres Unheil lauert jetzt in den beschädigten Atomkraftwerken: radioaktive Strahlung - die unsichtbare Gefahr.

Man sieht sie nicht, man schmeckt sie nicht, man riecht sie nicht. Aber sie kann tödlich sein: Radioaktivität. Sie gelangt durch Einatmen in den Körper oder wird von der Haut aufgenommen.

Schilddrüsenkrebs, Tumore, Akute Leukämie, Augenerkrankungen, psychische Störungen bis hin zu Schädigungen des Erbgutes sind nur einige der schlimmsten gesundheitlichen Folgen, die eine hohe Strahlenbelastung beim Menschen verursachen kann. Ist der Körper einer massiven Strahlendosis innerhalb kürzester Zeit ausgesetzt, dann führt das binnen weniger Stunden oder Tage zum Tod.

Tschernobyl: Bislang das schwerste Reaktorunglück 1986

Und auch bei einer Katastrophe wie im ukrainischen Atomkraftwerk Tschernobyl im April 1986 sind die Spätfolgen unübersehbar. 20 Jahre nach dem Unfall ist die Krebsrate in den meisten betroffenen Regionen um 40 Prozent angestiegen. Und Schätzungen zufolge starben allein in Russland 25.000 Menschen, die bei den Aufräumarbeiten am Reaktor mitgearbeitet haben.

Bei einer Verstrahlung gibt es kaum Abhilfe. Entscheidend aber ist, ob es sich um eine Kontamination handelt oder aber um eine Inkorporation. Bei einer Kontamination lagern sich radioaktive Stoffe auf der Körperoberfläche ab. Es klingt banal, aber in solchen Fällen versucht man, diese Stoffe mit normalem Wasser und mit Seifenschaum abzuwaschen. Eine Inkorporation hingegen ist wesentlich riskanter, denn dabei gelangen die gefährlichen Stoffe direkt in den Körper, und es gibt kaum Möglichkeiten, sie auszuschwemmen.

Das gewaltige Beben in Japan hat unseren Globus so stark erschüttert, dass sich die Erdachse um etwa zehn Zentimeter verschoben hat. Das hat das italienische Institut für Geophysik und Vulkanologie festgestellt. Dies sei sehr viel, versichert Roland Pail vom Institut für Astronomische und Physikalische Geodäsie der Technischen Universität München.

Nach der Tragödie wird Japan viel Geld, Energie und Hilfe brauchen, um die Wiederaufbauarbeiten zu machen, und unser Planet – jahrzehntelange Arbeit, um die Bilanz zu erreichen.

Literatur:

Сергиенко Анастасия Арамаизовна

Don State Technical University, Russia

THE DEVELOPMENT OF TOURISM IN ROSTOV REGION. ROSTOV REGIONAL BRANDING.

The medium-term perspective of the region has premises for further business and entertainment tourism development. This is conditioned by high tempos of economic development, presence of large successful companies and administrative structures. The main tourist centers of Rostov region are the towns of Rostov-on-Don, Azov, Novocherkassk, Taganrog; villages Starocherkasskaya, Veshenskaya ,Razdorskaya.

Key words: tourism, economic, development, rostov region, brand, impression, investors, customers, migrants, horseshoe.

Rostov region a federal subject of Russia is located in the Southern Federal District. Rostov Region lies in the south of Russia with an area of 100,800 km² and a population of 4,404,013 ,making it the fifth most populous federal subject in Russia. Its administrative center is Rostov-on-Don, which also became the administrative center of the Southern Federal District.

Rostov region is the land of rich and glorious history, generous nature, peculiar Cossack culture, talented and hospitable people. The Don region has a rich historic and cultural heritage, being one of the most attractive tourism objects in Russian Federation.

Russian and foreign tourists, traveling across the region, learn the rich historic past and the contemporary life of the steppe region, its places of interest, poetic legends and peculiarities of the Don Cossacks, inhabiting small settlements, called the Cossack villages.

Mild and warm climate, fertile soil, rich resources of mineral waters and therapeutic muds, create wonderful conditions for recreation and treatment.

Principal kinds of tourism in Rostov Region:

rmative tourism

Rostov region is peculiar not only in wonderful nature, it has historic monuments and unique Cossack culture. The informative tourism type features visiting various places of interest, museums, introduction to the local culture.

The first settlements that appeared within the Don land steppes were founded by the Cimmerians and the Scythians, and later on by the Greeks and Sarmatians. The unique historic and cultural heritage of those times can be seen at the museums of Rostov region.

2.Events tourism

Event tourism is the type of tourism, aimed at visiting cultural events and places.

The Don Cossack culture is diverse and versatile, you can enjoy the Cossack dancing and breathtaking songs at the Don land folklore fest. The staged historical reconstructions and theatrical shows are very popular on the Don land, attracting thousands of spectators and participants every year. The most famous of them are “The Sholokhov’s Spring”, “The Free Quiet Don”, international “Kayal Readings”, All-Russian festival of military historic clubs.

3.Congress tourism

The contemporary city of Rostov-on-Don is not only the administrative center of Rostov region, but also the capital of the Southern Federal district. The advantageous geopolitical location, the increasing social and economical potential, rich historic and cultural traditions of Southern Russia grant establishing of Rostov region as one of the world tourism centers. The region holds over 500 congress events of international and federal levels, over 100 special exhibitions, provides space for 8 professional expo-firms. All these create additional conditions for attracting to Rostov region businessmen, scientists and artists from Russia and abroad, and developing of business (congress) tourism.

Rostov region provides all the necessary conditions for congress tourism. Rostov has definite grounds for business tourism development. The hotels have all the conveniences for organizing seminars, conferences, business meetings and negotiations. The conference halls have technical equipment and other necessary conditions for business events. Many hotels of Rostov-on-Don and region define congress services as one of the priority enterprising areas. The old hotels are being reconstructed according to the congress tourism needs. The majority of the business events are held by the congress hotel “Don-Plaza”, congress-hall “Vertol-Expo” and hotel “Rostov”.

ral and Ethnographical tourism

- The Don land ethnography are the habits and ways of many peoples, inhabiting this part of the country since ancient times, the peculiar coloring of the Don Cossack villages, the Don Cossack folklore, various trades, Don Cossack cuisine, famous wines - the special trademark of the Don land.

- Rural tourism features tourist stay in rural areas, the accommodation in the Cossack farmsteads is provided. The tourists are offered a unique opportunity to try a variety of agricultural trades (free of charge), according to their interests, such as:

harvest gathering at the farmstead (in a garden or vineyard);

making house wine and fruit liquors, dairy products;

cooking dishes of the Don Cossack cuisine;

stocking dried fruits and medical herbs;

pasturing and looking after horses and other household animals at the farmsteads and farms;

fodder stocking and hay stacking;

crayfish catching and fishing.

There are 2 ethnographic preserve museums at the Cossack villages Razdorskaya and Starocherkasskaya of Rostov region, the rural settlements have corresponding tourist infrastructure. Thus, the rural tourism is connected with introduction into the Don Cossack traditions and way of life.

5.Water tourism

There are many wonderful places on the Don land, that were described in works by such famous writers as M. Sholokhov, A. Kalinin, V. Zakrutkin, and depicted by a number of prominent artists. However, only traveling by water you can enjoy all the peculiarities of the Quiet Donland, its natural beauty and coloring.

Water means of traveling in the Rostov region are represented by cruising to the regional historic places of interest, yacht and motor-boat trips across the Taganrog bay of the Azov sea, breathtaking rafting and kayaking adventures at the Don river and Severskiy Donets river, cruising at the endless Tsymlyanskoe sea, Proletarskij and Veselovskij reservoirs, recreation at the sandy beaches of the Southern coast by the Azow sea’s Taganrog bay.

Cruise Routes

The cruise route programs are represented by excursions to the regional historic places of interest (town of Azov, Cossack villages Starocherkasskaya, Romanovskaya and Konstantinovskaya). The cruise ships make stops for visiting museums, memorial complexes, historical places of interest. The cruise program offers open-air events, for tourists to have a swim in the Don river and participate in the variety of entertainment activities.

Every last Sunday of summer months the cruise ships take tourists to village Starocherkasskaya for participation in the folklore fest “Free Quiet Don”.

Besides, you can get unforgettable experience, going on a yacht or motor boat cruise in the Taganrog bay of the Azov sea or visiting preserve areas of the Upper Don land. The best option for exclusive holiday with you best friends. The tourists are welcomed to choose the route and places for going on shore for a picnic.

Rafting and Kayaking

All of us dreamt to conquer the seas. Active water traveling across the Rostov region rivers and reservoirs will help you keep fit spiritually and physically. Rafting and kayaking across the river are the unique experience, offered by the majority tour companies of Rostov-on-Don (“Cruise Company Voyage”, Agency “Mercury - 2000”, Company “Reina Tour NTV”). The raft with high skilled team can accommodate eight people. The standard tour lasts for five – seven days. Active water traveling with a tourist boat allows you to take as many thing as you want, eat what you want, enjoy your holiday and stay fit. This tourism type offers you to experience the beauty of the picturesque Don landscapes, to go fishing or swimming in the river.

Fishing

One of the best kinds of leisure on the Don land is fishing. The Don fishery has a long history. The Cossacks used to fish on light canoes, hollowed out of big trees. They used nets, hoops and other special devices. Fishery was very important for the Cossacks. The Don fish is very popular among the Russian and foreign gourmets since old times till present days. The vast Upper Don territories are perfect for generous fishing. There are over 50 fish species in multiple reservoirs – small rivers, channels, pure lakes and the Don river itself! The Don fishery trophies are rich in variety: regular gudgeon and noble vimba, night gloomy eelpout and swift bass with colorful stripy sides, brisk roach and heavy golden carp, inhabitant of the dark depths, the moustached giant sheatfish, torpedo-like “river shark” pike and sedate bream. There are also such famous fish species as the Don herring and royal fish. The clear Don river waters are inhabited by: zander, chub, asp, roach, ide, redeye, silver bream, silvereye, zope, and many other fishes.

The most famous recreation centers of Rostov region:

Recreation center “VeselyManych” on the bank of the Veselovsky reservoir offers you fishing on river, pike, bass, zander, carp, roach, redeye, bream.

The picturesque fishing lands of the M.A. Sholokhov’s preserve museum (Sholokhovsky district), visited by the famous Don land writer, welcome new guests, offering the best conditions for true fishing lovers.

Country club “MELEKHOV” (Kamensk-Shakhtinsky) offers you sport fishing. There is a special fishing lake just 7 km away from the club. You can bring you own fishery tackle or rent it in the club.

Hotel “Golden coast” (town of Taganrog).It is situated next to the Taganrog bay, guaranty you unforgettable fishing experience.

Recreation center “Chertanovka” (Azov district) offer fishing on carp, carp, grass carp, pike, bass, tench, roach, hybrid.

Recreation center “Blue Lakes” (town of Bataysk). Fishing on carp, carp, grass carp, pike, bass, tench, roach, hybrid.

Though you can go fishing not only to any fishing centers, the local fishermen have many cozy fishery places by the Don river and at its multiple tributaries, channels and lakes.

WindsurfingandKitesurfing

Windsurfing and Kitesurfing can give unforgettable active sport experience. There is a wonderful place at the Taganrog bay of the Azov sea called “Pavlo-Ochakov Spit”. The place is rather windy, so it is perfect for Windsurfing and Kitesurfing, attracting many sportsmen. There are many recreation centers of all levels at the spit. This is the spot for “KiteLife Camp” events. “KiteLife Camp” is not only a sport competition, it is a fest for everyone, where you can go surfing, participate in a competition or simply enjoy the show, meet old and new friends, learn something new and have fun at night at a real open-air surf party.

6.Ecology tourism

Ecotourism is traveling to places with relatively untouched nature, to learn the cultural and ethnographic peculiarities of particular territory, without disturbing the local ecosystem integrity.

There are untouched preserved natural territories in Rostov region. They are very important for the Don land wild nature resources preservation and restoration, and are very effective mechanisms for territorial ecological balance support, conservation of the natural biological diversity. Among the natural monuments of Rostov region should be mentioned the Sholokhov and Elansky lakes, centuries-old Giant Oak, Yasenevskaya, Kamennaya, Chulekskaya, Mukhina gullies, Manych-Gudilo lake, Persianovskaya steppe, Alexander forest, and many-many others. The only steppe zone in Europe, having the natural preserve territory status, is the unique steppe preserve “Rostovsky”, inhabited by the wild horses, the famous Don mustangs.

7.Tourism social

Social tourism is one of the high-priority tendencies of development for the tourist industry in the Rostov region

For 2 years under the regional special-purpose program «The development of tourism in the Rostov region for 2008-2009» and with the assistance of the regional administration we have been organizing excursions based on the main tourist routes of the Don kray and aimed at the socially unprotected groups of society. 160 disabled children, orphans and children of the socially unprotected parents from the northern parts of the Rostov region have been given 4 two-day weekend tours. They saw the sights of Rostov-on-Don, Azov, Aksay, Novocherkassk and Starocherkassk, went to the Rostov zoo, visited different museums and cultural monuments and many other historic places of the southern part of the Rostov region. 294 people including visually and aurally impaired, retired people and veterans participated in 7 one-day excursions organized specially for them.

8.Horse tourism

Equestrian tourism becomes more and more popular around the world. It is much more interesting than traveling in a locked up car or carrying a heavy back pack on your shoulders. Equestrian sport positively effects your health and is useful for people of all ages. It is a wonderful to take a rest from the hectic city life and enjoy the beauty of nature. Surely, it is necessary to have certain riding skills (at least to sit in a saddle), but they can be easily acquired by people of all ages.

BRANDING.

These days the necessity to form and develop regional brands is often discussed by not just experts at subject conference, but even administrators(when they, for example, generate more or less long-time region’s development strategy).

A territory’s brand is primarily a strong idea. The image, communications are nothing but instruments. Branding produces nothing, it’s aim is to produce a good impression and substantiate this by interaction practices between the brand and its target audience. Generally speaking a territorial brand helps do four things: explain the investors that local project financing is attractive, is provided with assets, and it is safe; explain the customers beyond the region why Made in… is a synonym to definite positive consumer qualities, as well as attract tourists and provide conditions to withhold young people, as well as attract qualified migrants.

The Rostov Region hardly needs rebranding, it has to form its own brand. The choice of such brand should be based on the things emphasizing the region’s onliness. Otherwise it will not be recognizable. A successful brand is characterized by the following four key parameters: its onliness ; its ideology converting onliness into history; justification of the factors- expectation formation and justifiability; optimal architecture. The latter is of special importance as it defines the way the brand, this territory’s companies, maintains balance in information interaction. A brand is a port combining all positive territorial manifestations to achieve a shared objective.

The Don silver horseshoe

Tourist route “The Silver Horseshoe of the Don” is the tourist brand of the Don land, combining informative, water, ecological, rural, ethnographical and other types of tourism.

The tourist route “The Silver Horseshoe of the Don” features the most significant tourist attractions of Rostov region. It comprises of a route, conditionally going along three “horseshoes” – the big, medium and small ones.

“The Big Horseshoe” goes through the following towns and villages: Taganrog – Rostov-on-Don – Novocherkassk – Shakhty – Belaya Kalitva – Kamensk-Shakhtinsky – Millerovo – Veshenskaya – Morozovsk – Tsymlyansk – Romanovskaya – Konstantinovsk – Azov.

“The Medium Horseshoe” features: Taganrog - Rostov-on-Don, Razdorskaya – Kochetovskaya – Semikarakorsk – Veseliy – Proletarsk – Salsk – Tselina – Zernograd - Azov.

“The Small Horseshoe” includes: Taganrog – Tanais – Rostov-on-Don – Aksay – Novocherkassk – Starocherkassk – Azov.

But these days we can speak of quite a number of associations and attributes that nay, or may not, become a basis for the regional brand. In my opinion such associations are the Don, Sholokhov, Rotselmash, Don Tabacco, Papa Rostov. All this and many other things is what you can work with, but the Rostov Region has not formed its brand yet.

Literature

1.AnnaPalagina “Rostov region. Tourism potential of the Sea of Azov Taganrogsky Gulf”.

Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation Fourth International Conference “Development of Tourism Infrastructure in the Black Sea Region” 2-4 October 2008. Gelendzhik, Krasnodar region, Russian Federation. p.66

2.illustrated magazine “Rostov Region”. Founded and published by Media Agency “Don” LLC. №4/2010 p.56

3.

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5.

Соколова Мария

Don State Technical University

5 COMPONENTS OF BARACK OBAMA’S SUCCESS

Author analyzed Barack Obama’s pre-election campaign and highlights 5 components of his success: budgeting, focus on youth, image, publicity’s building and usage of Internet resources.

Key words: pre-election campaign, budget, public face, “youth media”, supporting, website, social networking.

Next year we are going to facilitate the election campaigns of Russian and American presidents and we will get an opportunity to compare their promotion. That's why I would like to present you some information about Barack Obama's pre-election campaign in 2008.

Barack Hussein Obama began his pre-election campaign with minimal resources: there was practically no money, the candidate - young, black, unexperienced and not a very handsome guy. But he gathered around himself a brilliant team, headed by three men - David Akserold, Dave Plouffe and Mark Andersen.

This pre-election campaign came into history as the first U.S.A. campaign based on the principles and laws of Digital Generation. And I’m going to explain you how it happened.

  • Budgeting.

All the wishers: workers, students, housewives could invest money into this campaign. Some of them donated only 10 or 20 dollars. Obama’ resources seemed to be unlimited. During the first half of 2007, the Obama’s campaign had accumulated $ 58 million. It was a tremendous success within the first six month of his pre-election campaign.

  • Focus on the youth.

The target audience was the young generation. First of all, youth was not dedicated to competitors. Secondly, the youth exchanges information fast and mobile, uses Internet, social networks, blogs, etc. Thirdly, young people can be touched by emotional factors. However, it was a very risky choice. But the risk was justified by the skillful use of "youth media".

  • Image creation.

One of the hardest things in the preparation of the pre-election campaign was creation of Obama’s image. Barack Obama’s Image, of course, is qualitative work of image-makers. The public face of Barack Obama is his appearance (skin color, smile, expressive facial expressions and gestures), the youth, race, law degree, a commitment to religion, kind family relationships. In general, Barack Obama’s public face had become strong, charismatic, confident, but, at the same time, looking as an ordinary Afro-American with his own advantages and disadvantages. He had nothing to hide, open hearted &out-going. He is a good husband and father, believing Christian, a charming, prone to compromise a modern man. As a result, the image created for Barack Obama, met all the requirements of modern American society.

  • Speeches.

The essence of the pre-election campaign can be described in three words and one sentence: change, hope, believe and Yes We Can. For example, you find phrase Yes We Can at the end of each paragraph в конце его речей

In pre-election speeches, Barack Obama played in the hands of U.S.A. history, the "high purpose" of the country and the people’s feelings. During the campaign, candidate had put on end the Iraq war, fight for energy independence and universal healthcare. His campaign slogans are "Change, in which we believe" and "Yes we can!".

Obama was supported by the musicians, releasing the album «Change Is Now: Renewing America's Promise», consisting of 18 songs. The album was sold with a special DVD, containing a record of Barack Obama’s speeches. Among the singers whose songs can be found on the disc were Stevie Wonder, Sheryl Crow, Lenny Kravitz, Usher, Maroon 5 and others.

We can see, that his speeches….

The celebrities supported the candidate voluntary. The slogan "Change Can Happen" was close to them. In particular, the rapper Snoop Dogg said: Obama has proved the voters that America is ready for a new black president.

As a result, inhabitants of different countries associated the coming Afro-American candidate Barack Obama with the changes for the better. "Obamamania” spreaded around the world. Barack Obama, practically unknown to anyone, has become a modern pop idol.

And now, I open the main competitive edge of his campaign for you.

5. Usage of website and social networking.

Obama pre-election website was created by Chris Hughes. His site logged more than 70,000 users. You can find all his pre-election speeches here.

The usage of social networking is recognized as one of the fastest and most effective online marketing. Obama was everywhere: YouTube, Facebook, MySpace, Twitter, Digg, Flickr and other links. Barack Obama became the owner of the most visited pages. As a result, Barack Obama had supporters and fans all over the world.

All bloggers activated and joined another site - , created by the Obama's staff. Users can report on any new negative rumors themselves and reject it there.

As a result, the Presidential campaign of Barack Obama changed the idea of ​​pre-election strategy, agitation, attraction funds. Obama again attracted young people to the polls.

Literature:

  1. Варган С. «Барак Обама - лучший визажист Америки»

  2. Давыдов Ю. «Бренд «Президент Обама»: суперстратегия YesWeCan». Рекламные идеи №2, 2009г.

Сологай Татьяна Андреевна

Rostov State Civil Engeneering University, Russia

INTEGRATED MARKETING COMMUNICATIONS AS INNOVATIVE ADVERTISING TECHNOLOGY

Integrated marketing communications are considered as a new effective concept in marketing and advertising spheres, its advantages in comparison with traditional marketing schemes. There is an analysis of opportunities for using IMC in Russia.

Key words: integrated marketing communications (IMC), innovative technology, mass advertising, traditional marketing schemes.

At the present time many marketeers have the same opinion, that sales promotion become more end more complex during last decade, and traditional solutions are losing its efficiency, though it is still very expensive solutions. The crisis of advertising industry become obvious, it is generated with “ripening” of the market, increasing volume of the advertising messages and consumer’s satiety. It is hard to score a success in such conditions using only one constituent of promotion mix – advertising, PR or sale promotion.

But last years the new concept appears within marketing and advertising spheres. There is a new term for it in Western nations - integrated marketing communications (IMC). IMC correspond integrated multi-channel timed communication, oriented to establishment of relationships with target audience. It is desirable that these relationships are two-way communication. [3]

Tomas Harris is a famous American PR-specialist, and there are his words about IMC: “In heart of IMC program is a knowledge of our consumers and adaption of innovative technologies for best acquaintance with them. Our clients shouldn’t be faceless “market segment”, we should know them as concrete persons with names, adresses, purchase history, preferences, families and friends. We should understand our customers, and first of all we should learn to appraise an efficiency of different communication influence instruments for customers”. [3]

Philip Kotler, a living classic of marketing, gives such definition for IMC: “IMC is the concept under which a company carefully integrates and coordinates its many communications channels to deliver a clear, consistent message". [1]

IMC can be considered as different phenomenon, it depends on researcher’s point of view. It can be considered as a result of mass-advertising’s natural development; as a concept, which always was used by several advertising agencies; as a principal threat for traditional mass advertising. [4]

But in our opinion none of above-listed approaches reflect essence of the IMC. We think, that on the one hand we can’t consider IMC as a result of natural historical development of advertising because IMC appeared as a result of pressing fast-developing market’s demands. But on the other hand also we can’t say, that IMC and traditional forms of advertising exist separately, exclude each other and IMC is a threat for traditional mass advertising. We can’t say it because traditional mass advertising is an integral part of IMC, and without it it’s impossible to achieve an optimal result.

Now, we think, it is logical to set forth the main advantages of IMC over traditional marketing schemes.

1. IMC make it possible to form clear, consistent marketing message, which are more memorable and effective for target audience – it is called “synergy effect”.[5] As a result we have increasing efficiency of company’s marketing activity.

2. IMC make consumer’s loyalty to trade mark stronger by concentration of energies on long-term relationships with customers and other members of marketing process.

3. IMC make it possible to exclude contradictions between marketing messages, that were used.

4. The IMC concept cheaper at least several times than traditional marketing shemes. It is possible because with application of IMC companies can refuse of TV commercials.

Our research of IMC technology give us the conclusion, that this technology is very progressive for Russia. Usage of this innovative concept make it possible to lead Russian advertising market to the new standard.

Russian companies are still at the stage of convertion from sale ideology to marketing philosophy. There are several mass brands, which have stable positions on market, and they hold it by traditional marketing methods.

Nevertheless, as it said by Ilyia Kuzmenkov, the chairman of the board of directors of communication group “Kyzmenkov&partners”: “The new tipe of consumer appears in Russia, and new companies, which use new approaches”. [3]

The dynamics of Russian market in hard-saving economy conditions make companies find effective marketing instruments for minimal cost. In our opinion, IMC is the optimal solytion of this problem. On the one hand, usage IMC let companies to find understanding with their consumers faster and more effective. On the other hand, usage of IMC make it possible to develop an experience of the leading marketing technologies in conditions of adaptationto Russian environment. It will lead Russian specialists to several discoveries in marketing and advertising spheres and widen the borders of modern marketing.

Literature

1. Kotler Philip. Marketing Management: Analysis, Planning, and Control

2. Smit P. Marketing communications. Integrative achievements

3.

4.

5.

Филина Анастасия Сергеевна

Don State Technical University

DAS MODERNE DEUTSCHE BANKENSYSTEM

The article deals with the main groups of bank institutions in Germany: saving banks, cooperative banks and private banks. The article highlights their popularity among the population and their basic functions.

Key words: banks, saving banks, cooperative banks, private banks, loans, interest rate, financial state, credit demand, shareholders.

Im deutschen Bankensystem gibt es drei große Gruppen: Sparkassen, Genossenschaftsbanken und Privatbanken mit einer Vielzahl örtlicher Filialen und zentraler Institutionen. Die Spitze bilden die Zentralbanken der Länder und die Bundesbank.

Alle Banken zusammen, untereinander im Wettbewerb mit ihren Dienstleistungen bei recht ähnlichen finanziellen Bedingungen, gewährleisten einen flächendeckenden Geldservice in der gesamten Bundesrepublik.

Die Sparkassen.

In Deutschland gibt es heute rund 560 Sparkassen mit knapp 20000 Zweigstellen. Sie sind fast sämtlich kommunale Institute. Eigentümer und damit auch Garanten sind also die jeweiligen Städte oder Landkreise.

Sparkassen sind gemeinnützig. Ihr oberstes Ziel ist es, der Bevölkerung in ihrem Gebiet eine angemessene, je nach Wirtschaftslage veränderliche Verzinsung für Ersparnisse zu bieten und mit den Einlagen den lokalen Kreditbedarf zu decken.

Die verschiedenen Sparkassen haben sich zu regionalen Verbänden zusammengeschlossen und sind Mitträger der Landesbanken, der sogenannten Hausbanken der Bundesländer. Die Regionalverbände beraten und unterstützen ihre Mitglieder vor allem in rechtlichen und betriebswirtschaftlichen Fragen. Sie prüfen die Sparkassen und bilden Mitarbeiter weiter. Sie vertreten die Interessen der Sparkassen bei den Parlamenten und Regierungen der Bundesländer. Sie sind teils Verrechnungsstellen für den überörtlichen Zahlungsverkehr unter den Sparkassen und mit anderen Kreditinstituten.

Die Sparkassenorganisation ist heute die größte Gruppe in der deutschen Kreditwirtschaft. Rund sechzig Prozent aller Deutschen haben ein Konto bei einer Sparkasse. Es ist, im globalen Vergleich betrachtet, ein traditioneller deutscher Sonderweg: die wichtigsten Geldinstitute sind nicht private, sondern öffentliche Einrichtungen, dem Gemeinwohl verpflichtet und nicht dem Shareholder-Value.

Die Genossenschaftsbanken.

Die Gruppe der "Volksbanken und Raiffeisenbanken" umfasst über zweitausend Genossenschaften mit knapp 15 Millionen persönlichen Mitgliedern. Die Kunden werden in mehr als 15000 Bankfilialen bedient. Die Zahl der Zweigstellen wie der selbständigen Bankinstitute schrumpft seit den neunziger Jahren ständig zugunsten von Fusionen im Genossenschafts-Banking. Sie erscheinen mit der Entwicklung des europäischen Binnenmarktes und im Zuge der Globalisierung unvermeidlich.

Die Genossenschaftsbanken waren ursprünglich Selbsthilfeeinrichtungen zur Kreditversorgung des gewerblichen und landwirtschaftlichen Mittelstandes. Der über Deutschland hinaus bekannte F.W. Raiffeisen (1818 - 1888) war einer der Gründerväter des landwirtschaftlichen Genossenschaftswesen. Die ehemaligen Genossenschaftskassen für Handwerk und Gewerbe sowie die Bäuerlichen Handelsgenossenschaften in Ostdeutschland sind heute ebenfalls meist Volksbanken und Raiffeisenbanken.

Die Deutsche Genossenschaftsbank (DG Bank) ist auch für internationale Geschäftsverbindungen der genossenschaftlichen Bankengruppe zuständig.

Die Privatbanken.

In Deutschland gibt es rund dreihundert private Kreditinstitute. Weltbekannt sind zum Beispiel die drei Institute Deutsche Bank, Dresdner Bank, Commerzbank. Im Herbst 1998 kam als zweitgrößte deutsche Bank die "Bayerische hypo- und Vereinsbank" hinzu (aus einer Fusion der Hypothekenbank mit der Vereinsbank). Diese sogenannten "Großbanken" sind als Aktiengesellschaften organisiert. In der Aktionärsversammlung können Stimmrechte beschränkt werden, um die Vorherrschaft eines Großaktionärs auszuschließen.

Die Großbanken haben als Kreditgeber wie durch Geschäftsbeteiligungen eine besonders starke Stellung in einzelnen Industriefirmen. Das ist in der Geschichte der Industrialisierung begründet. Manche Firmen bevorzugten bei der Finanzierung ihrer Unternehmen und Investitionen bestimmte Banken, die ihrerseits ein besonderes Interesse am Wohlergehen ihrer Großkunden entwickelten. Heute ist die Kreditwirtschaft allerdings zu weniger als einem Prozent an allen Kapitalgesellschaften beteiligt.

Auch das Gewicht der Großbanken am gesamten deutschen Geld- und Kreditmarkt ist begrenzt. Gemessen an den Bilanzsummen, liegt ihr Anteil zusammen unter zehn Prozent.

Literatur

Фоменко Татьяна Александровна

Don State Technical University

SLOGAN: ITS ORIGIN AND USAGE

Today during the process of successful positioning of a product special attention is paid to the role of a slogan. Slogan creation is the engine of advertizing process. Today the slogan is more than simply beautiful combination of words reflecting essence of a product. The practical point of view says that slogan is the most important component of any successful advertizing company or – one of the main keys to success. The most important purpose of slogan is not to entertain, but to SELL the goods. The power of "seller" is in its value. Value, first of all, should reflect mark’s advantage (the basic attributes) in the opinion of the consumer.

Key words: slogan, advertising, seller, combination, feature, benefit, question, challenge, structure, rules.

As the ship you will name so it will float...

This proverb is ancient, but still very popular. And that is really true. In everyday life we are surrounded with thousands various names, logos etc. With the beginning of formation of market relations each manufacturer has faced necessity of advertizing of the product. A basis of an individualization of a product is the trade mark creation, because each manufacturer needs its product to become learned and easily could distinguish from a product of the competitor. So process of creation of a trade mark becomes responsible part of successful positioning on the market.

Today more than ever firms pay great attention to creation of a verbal trade mark, creation of the name of a product or firm as a whole. The proverb mentioned above reminds us that the name plays an important role, because after the process of manufacturing the future of any product depends on it.

Special attention should be paid to the role of a slogan during the process of successful positioning of a product. Slogan creation is the engine of advertizing process. Today the slogan is more than simply beautiful combination of words reflecting essence of a product. While creating a slogan it is necessary to remember that the slogan can leave the frameworks of advertizing and to settle in heads of millions people, having turned from an advertizing phrase to the settled aphorism or proverb.

So what is a slogan?

In brief, the slogan is the advertising phrase containing the effective and easily remembered formulation of advertizing idea. This is a dictionary explanation of the term. The practical point of view says that slogan is the most important component of any successful advertizing company or – one of the main keys to success.

Being small on volume, usually several words, the slogan concentrates very much emotional sense and forms image of the organization or production and the relation of consumers to them.

But how and when there appeared a slogan?

Slogan without exaggeration one of the most ancient ways to draw attention and to fix an emotional condition which knows mankind.

Firstly «slogan» meant an aggressive call that soldiers of the Scottish clan used during a rush on enemies (at each clan, naturally, there was their own call). In modern time for the first time it is used in 1880.

The most important purpose of slogan is not to entertain, but to SELL the goods. The power of "seller" is in its value. Value, first of all, should reflect mark’s advantage (the basic attributes) in the opinion of the consumer. For example, why did the beer “Lite” became the most successful on sales? In sector of low-calorie beer none of marks had success. The reason was easy: that marks were positioned as dietary or low-calorie drinks. That’s why consumers perceived them as "female" marks and demand on this product was really low. This situation was on the market before the appearance of the beer “Lite” of the Miller company. It has been decided to hide "ladies" perception of mark and to position “Lite” as the beer which is not giving the feeling of filling. So there was a slogan: “Lite” contains 1/3 less calories, therefore it is possible to drink more beer, without filling. The one that other marks couldn't make long time – correctly to formulate advantage of slogan, - has made “Lite”. After a short period of time “Lite” beer became the most popular mark, and its sales – the most successful in the sector.

There are five major slogan types:

1. A feature - a uniqueness or difference between a substance, product or object. Ex: "Write an ebook in 7 days."

2. A benefit - a result that someone receives. Remember, this saves you [time or money].

3. A question - thought-provoking methods. "How would you like to be a millionaire in three years?"

4. A challenge - a dare. Ex: The Marines, "We are only looking for a few good men."

5. A structure - a design or collection put together for a single purpose. Ex: "The Abundance Center holds all the information you will ever need to know on abundance."

After the first look on this list we can become complicated how to choose the right type and how to make slogan itself.

Creation of any slogan often occurs under the same scenario:

1. Problem definition, or what do we want first of all to tell and underline to the consumer. There can be a large quantity of interesting ideas, but it is necessary to choose only one.

2. Construction of a basis of a slogan, definition of its base.

3. Slogan check on possibility of doubles or existing of slogans with certain associations.

4. Writing of several variants.

5. Their application one after another in different advertizing messages. After several time it is possible to define unmistakably what slogan to choose.

Anyway, following the given plan doesn't give 100 % of a guarantee on creation of a successful slogan. Besides there are some more requirements that is necessary to adhere to. And only their skillful combination with the creation plan gives confidence of results.

So, what rules it is necessary to adhere to for the creation of an "effective" slogan and to make it memorable?

There are some ways how to make it:

1. Make it exciting

2. Be boastful or exaggerated, BUT do not overdo it

3. Self-referencing

4. Metaphorical, playful or humorous

5. Inspirational or uplifting

6. To trigger painful memories or possibilities

7. Use of vivid or freshful language

8. Less words, more sense and rhythm

9. No negative designs

Well, here are the top 10 most famous advertising slogans of the last one hundred years:

1- DeBeers: "Diamonds are Forever"

2- Nike: "Just Do It"

3- M & M's: "M & Ms, Melt in your mouth, not in your hand"

4- Miller Lite: "Tastes Great, Less Filling"

5- Avis: "We Try Harder"

6- Maxwell House: "Good to the Last Drop"

7- Wheaties: "Breakfast of Champions"

8- Clairol: "Does She...or Doesn't She?"

9- Morton Salt: "When it Rains, it Pours"

10- Wendy's: "Where's the Beef?"

Literature

1. «Slogan in the marketing communications: a dictionary, research, and technology.» А.Ponomareva

2.

3.

4. /wiki/Slogan

Черныш Дарья Владимировна

Don State Technical University, Russia

AGGRESSIVE MARKETING

Aggressive marketing is trading-merchandising policy, wherein company leads dynamic attack on customers, market and its separate parts and even….employees. In this type of marketing an advertisement and proposition begin before the projection of the product.

Key words: marketing strategies, profit, competition, “military strategy”, advertisement, aggressive tactics, stable market, aggressive employees, marketing analysis.

Marketing is the activity, set of institutions, and processes for creating, communicating, delivering, and exchanging offerings that have value for customers, clients, partners, and society at large. It generates the strategy that underlines sales techniques, business communication, and business developments. It is an integrated process through which companies build strong customer relationships and create value for their customers and for themselves.

Any company is interested in profit making. It directly depends on marketing strategy. If a company uses effective marketing strategy it will increase its company's profit.

One of the best strategies that increase profit is an aggressive one.

In the world of business, there are several aggressive marketing strategies you can try, in order to see, which one might work best for you.

Reactive Marketing

Reactive marketing is the most widely used approach nowadays, but it doesn't mean that it's the best way to do business. It's easy for any company to be reactive. It's the laziest way. All you have to do is waiting until someone else does all the work and then simply reduce their price or change their design slightly, and pass off as your own.

Analyzer Marketing

This type of marketing is the golden mean between the next two strategies. There are three steps of the analyzer marketing. The first step is to look at the different techniques that people in your industry are using. The second step is to find out for what type of audience you are going to work out the marketing strategy. For example if you are targeting the older generations you won’t use marketing appropriate for teenagers, because then the older generation would disregard the advertisement. The third step is to see people's responses to different sales and discounts. Analyzing these different techniques will help you to see what you can do to grab people's attention.

Defender Marketing

A defender strategy corresponds to find, and maintain a secure and relatively stable market. Rather than being on the cutting edge of technological innovation, product development, and market dynamics, a defender tries to insulate themselves from changes wherever possible. In their attempt to secure this stable market they either keep prices low, keep advertising and other promotional costs low, engage in vertical integration, offer a limited range of products or offer better quality or service. They tend to be slower in making decisions and will only commit to a change after extensive research and analysis. Their goals are aimed to be valid.

Prospector Marketing

This is the most aggressive of the four strategies. It typically involves active programs to expand into new markets and stimulate new opportunities. A common way of obtaining additional market share is to attack competitors. They respond quickly to any signs of market opportunity, and do so with little research or analysis. A large proportion of their revenue comes from new products or new markets. They are often highly leveraged, sometimes with a substantial equity position held by venture capitalists. The risk of product failure or market rejection is high. Their market domain is constantly in flux as new opportunities arise and past product offerings atrophy. Price skimming is a common way of recapturing the cost of development.

More and more companies tend to use “military strategy” in order to increase their sales. The main principle of warfare is a perfect defense. The strong defensive position is very difficult to overcome. Therefore Chevrolet will be the biggest-selling make of cars and McDonald’s – the largest chain of fast food restaurants.

It is much better to be on top, than to reach it. Small companies in order to survive should forget for ever about politeness and conservatism in marketing. In spite of the fact that aggressive marketing is incompatible with safety, it can be unique, rather safe way on the market for the small companies.

Nonaggressive marketing can be more dangerous. For example: On each TV advertizing which starts small American fast food Burgervill in the USA, McDonald's answers with 30 commercials, Burger King - 20, and Wendy's-15. Thus, every time when Burgervill starts the commercial, its competitors answer with 65 rollers. As a result, the money spent for creation of television advertizing is thrown away.

In order to increase the income, aggressive tactics is necessary. For example, such tactic, which have applied small computer company American Online in 1990s. While installation of the software at the companies-leaders cost a lot of money, American Online has decided to distribute 250 million diskettes which help to establish the software and to be connected to American Online for one month free of charge. They could be in the computer magazines, and in the most unexpected places: Attached to bags with a peanut in planes, together with the frozen beefsteaks in supermarkets, at last, in mail boxes. As a result, a year later after “diskettes bombardments” the number of paid subscribers of the company has increased from 300 thousand to 23 million persons, and monthly incomes American Online have made $98 million.

Naturally, in "the aggressive" companies should be aggressive employees. If you want to achieve wonderful results, you should make the workers aggressive, capable to give rise to the most improbable ideas. For this purpose it is necessary to create certain atmosphere at a workplace. But this refers not to the high salary, the magnificent medical insurance and a free parking. The list of priorities of any company should look so: employees, clients, shareholders, rather than reverse. If you inspire the employees- allow them to realize the aggressive ideas, they will work with the big diligence, show the big sharpness at a workplace, offer extraordinary ideas which will bring positive results, take care of clients. Eventually, workers won’t leave the company because work in it will bring them pleasure.

Literature

  1. Jack Trout, Al Ries “Marketing Warfare”

  2. Jack Trout, Al Ries “The 22 Immutable Laws of Marketing: Violate them at your own Risk!”

  3. Jon Spoelstra, Mark Cuban “Marketing Outrageously Redux: How to Increase your Revenue by Staggering Amounts”

Чернышова Елена

Rostov State Economic University

EL CINE ESPAÑOL

The report is devoted to a very broad culture and art layer, which is very popular and highly estimated by both experts and ordinary people. This is cinematograph. In this the subject is the Spanish cinema. The main points, covered in the report are the history of the Spanish cinema, its modern state and its further existence and development. We also give all the main features of the Spanish cinema, and try to analyze its essence, genres and directivity. The names of outstanding directors and actors are mentioned. The report is accompanied by illustrative material.

El cine es un modo excelente de pasar buen tiempo en la compañía de los amigos o la familia.

El cine español no ha alcanzaro las alturas grandes en el nivel mundial. Por toda su historia es posible distinguir tales personas muy famosas como Luís Bunyuelya, Segundo де Chomon, Florian Planea, Luís Garsiya Berlanga, Carlos Saura, Pedro Almodóvar y Alejandro Amenabar.

El comienzo

La primera proyección en España tenía lugar el 5 de mayo de 1895 en Barcelona. En mayo en Madrid y en diciembre en Barcelona eran mostradas las películas de los hermanos de Lyumer.

Segundo dе Chomon es el primer director español, que gano el éxito internacional.

En 1914 Barcelona era el centro de la industria cinematográfica de España. En este momento en cine predominaban así llamados «españoladas», los cuadros épicos de la historia de España, que dominaban en el cine español hasta 1960 años.

En 1928 en Madrid con Ernesto Jiménez Kabalero y Luís Bunyuel era fundado el primer club de cine.

En el mismo año Fransisko Elias Rikelme hizo la primera película Sonora de España, «El misterio de la Puerta del Sol”.

En 1932 Manuel Kasanova ha fundo la Compañía Industrial Film Española S.A. — CIFESA.

En 1950 en España comenzaron a pasar dos festivales importantes cinematográficos. El 21 de septiembre 1953 por primera vez tuvo lugar el Festival de Cine en la Dignidad-Sebastyane, que desde entonces no estaba interrumpido y ahora es el Festival annual de Cine. En 1956 en Valladolid paso la primera Semana Internacional de Cine.

Nuevo cine español

En 1962 José María García Escudero volvio a la dirección de la Dirección General de Cine. Asi aumento el apoyo estatal del cine, activamente empiezo a desarrollarse la la Escuela Oficial de Cine. La multitud de nuevos directores salieron de esta Escula. Entre ellos es posible distinguir Mario Kamusa, a Migelya Pikaso, Fransisko Regeyro, Manuel Sammersa y Carlos Saura.

En 1967 aparecio el Festival de Cine de Sitges, posteriormente era conocido como el Festival Internacional de Cinema de Cataluña y que se consideraba por una de las mejores competiciones cinematográficas de Europa y el era el número 1 en el campo de la ciencia-ficción.

Con todo eso el cine español depende de los éxitos episódicos y las entradas en caja así llamadas de "las comedias de Madrid» («comedia madrileña») de Fernando Kolomo y Fernando Trueby, y tambien de los melodramas refinados de Pedro Almodóvar, el humor negro de Alex de la Iglesia y el humor burdo de Santiago Segura.

Pero ahora en España hace cerca de 140 cuadros por año.

Los directores mas famosos

A la categoria de los directores mas famosas sin dudas podemos pertenecer Pedro Almodóvar, Alejandro Amenabar, Bigas la Luna. Sus trabajos admiran los apreciadores más caprichosos y exigentes del arte cinematográfica.

En lo que se refiere a los actores famosos españoles ,entre los mujeres esto sin dudas son – Penélope Cruz, muy famosa por la belleza natural española y el talento fenomenal de actor en tales peliculas como: «el cielo De vainilla», "la Bandida", "la Cocaína", «los corazones Indómitos», «las Arvejas, Cristina, Barcelona».

Y entre los hombres - Javier Bardem- el actor español de la escala mundial. Él actuaba en tales películas conocidas, como «a los Ancianos aquí no el lugar», «el Amor durante el cólera», «los Fantasmas de Goya» y muchos otros.

Pero en conclusión es necesario decir que por desgracia, en nuestros tiempos las películas de la producción española componen cerca de 10-20 % de la distribución de España que permite hablar sobre la crisis posible del cinematógrafo español. Los datos estadísticos muestran que los españoles mismos prefieren los hollywoodianos.

Содержание

  1. Алексеева Мария (ДГТУ, 3 курс) «Антикризисные программы развитых стран мира»……………………………………стр. 4

  2. Балкунова Наталья, Барбарова Ирина

( РИНХ, 3 курс) «Интернет и социальные сети»……………………………………стр. 10

  1. Бен Реддад Камиль (Марокко, РГМУ, 1 курс) «Знание иностранных языков – необходимость для специалиста XXI века»……………………………………стр. 16

  2. Брусникина Ксения ( ДГТУ, 3 курс) «Новая мировая валюта как фактор стабилизации мировой финансовой системы»………стр.23

  3. Ватина Сами (Кения) «Использование блогов для улучшения взаимоотношений» ………………………………………….стр.35

  4. Ватруба Константин (ДГТУ, 1 курс) «Новые тенденции в индустрии туризма»………………………………стр.42

  5. Веретошенко Екатерина, Спиридонова Екатерина ( ДГТУ, 2 курс) «Современные тенденции развития мирового туризма»……………………………..стр.48

  6. Волкова Ольга, Танькина Таисья (ДГТУ, 2 курс) «PR – образ жизни или профессия?»…………………………стр.57

  7. Вотинов М. «Программный алгоритм для определения экстремальной величины нескольких переменных функций путем метода градуального отклонения» (Мурманский государственный технический университет)…………………………стр. 61

  8. Гапоненко Оксана ( ДГТУ, 3 курс) «Последние инновации в науке и технике»……………………………….стр.66

  9. Глазунова Людмила (ДГТУ) «Вычисление термических показателей в радиоэлектронных приборах»…………………………….стр.71

  10. Горковенко Татьяна (ДГТУ, 4 курс) «Инновационное развитие российских транснациональных компаний»…………………………….стр.84

  11. Давидян Лола ( РИНХ, 4 курс) «Перспективы развития индустрии туризма в Донском крае»……………………………………стр.94

  12. Камау Энн Харриет (РГМУ, 4 курс) «Получение высшего образования в странах Африки»…………………………………стр.97

  13. Катрич Вероника (ДГТУ, 4 курс) «Особенности коммуникативного поведения французов и русских»……………………………..стр.105

  14. Ле Чунг Киен «Инновационный подход при разработке высокомоментного позиционного привода повышенного быстродействия и точности» (ДГТУ, магистрант)………….стр.114

  15. Логвинов Павел Викторович «Электрогидравлический шаговый позиционный привод» (ДГТУ, магистрант)…………………стр.117

  16. Лыкова Ирина (ДГТУ, 4 курс) «Женщины – менеджеры во Франции»……………………………стр.123

  17. Лыкова Ирина (ДГТУ, 4 курс) «Russia’s accession to the WTO: prospects and achievement»…………………………стр.134

  18. Мартыненко Андрей Владимирович (ДГТУ) «Электрогидравлический пошаговый привод»……………………………….стр.138

  19. Мороз Елена(ДГТУ, 2 курс) «Правовые формы предприятий в Германии»…………………………….стр.141

  20. Муругов Иван «Новый мультикультурализм в Соединенных Штатах Америки» (ДГТУ, 2 курс)……………………………………стр.149

  21. Наливайченко Дмитрий (ДГТУ, 2 курс) «Социальные сети привлекают все больше спама»……………………………….стр.154

  22. Никитина Любовь (ДГТУ, 4 курс) «Мировой кризис во Франции»

………………………………………….стр.159

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  2. Овчинникова Ксения ( ДГТУ, 3 курс) «Возможно-ли совместить консерватизм и модернизацию?»………………………стр.176

  3. Олейник Дарья (ДГТУ, 2 курс) «Конкурентное преимущество экономичного производства»…………………………стр.193

  4. Олейник Д., Муругов И. (ДГТУ, 2 курс) «Займы»……………………………….стр.199

  5. Орлова Света (ДГТУ, 3 курс) «Средние и малые предприятия Франции»……………………………..стр. 205

  6. Орлова Светлана (ДГТУ, 3 курс) «Российский авторынок после кризиса»………………………………стр.209

  7. Полушкина Мария ( ДГТУ, 3курс) «Оригинальные и инновационные разработки ученых»………………………………стр. 220

  8. Полушкина Мария (ДГТУ, 3 курса) «Технический прогресс и наше отношение к нему»……………………………………стр. 227

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…………………………………………стр.247

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  2. Пузанова Марина ( ДГТУ, 3 курс) «Последствия японской трагедии»…………………………….стр. 259

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  6. Филина Анастасия (ДГТУ, 3 курс) «Современная банковская система Германии»……………………………стр. 286

  7. Фоменко Татьяна (ДГТУ, 3 курс) «Слоган, происхождение и использование»……………………..стр. 290

  8. Черныш Дарья (ДГТУ, 3 курс) «Агрессивный маркетинг»………….стр. 297

  9. Чернышова Елена ( РИНХ, 4 курс) «Испанский кинематограф»

……………………………………….стр. 302

Уважаемые студенты, магистранты и аспиранты!

Кафедра «Мировые языки и культуры» факультета «Международный» Донского Государственного Технического Университета приглашает Вас принять участие во второй ежегодной международной студенческой научно-практической конференции «Инновационное развитие и развитие инноваций» в апреле 2012 года.

Контактная информация:

8-(863)2381316 – кафедра «Мировые языки и культуры» ДГТУ,

8-905-455-08-96 – организатор Сухорукова Анна Николаевна,

8-951-511-11-35 – техник кафедры Медея

Надеемся на успешное сотрудничество!

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