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Методические указания по развитию навыков чтения и устной речи на английском языке по теме «Высшее образование» для студентов 1-2 курсов естественных факультетов университетов Ростов-на-Дону 2005

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Федеральное агентство по образованию

Российской Федерации

___________

Государственное образовательное учреждение

высшего профессионального образования

«РОСТОВСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ»

Кафедра английского языка естественных факультетов

МЕТОДИЧЕСКИЕ УКАЗАНИЯ

по развитию навыков чтения и устной речи

на английском языке по теме «Высшее образование»

для студентов 1-2 курсов

естественных факультетов университетов

Ростов-на-Дону

2005

Составители: проф. Сафроненко О.И., ст. преп. Беляева Н.А.,

ст. преп. Кузнецова Л.В., ст. преп. Мыльникова С.Б.

Рецензент: ст. преп. Резникова С.Ю.

Печатается в соответствии с решением кафедры английского языка естественных факультетов ГОУ ВПО «РГУ», протокол № 2 от 21 октября 2005 г.

Методическая записка

Настоящие методические указания предназначаются для аудиторной и самостоятельной работы студентов 1-2 курсов.

Основная цель указаний - расширение страноведческих знаний студентов по теме «Системы высшего образования в России, Великобритании и США» и совершенствование навыков изучающего и ознакомительного чтения с выходом в устную речь. Методические указания также способствуют накоплению тематического словарного запаса в пределах данной темы.

Данные методические указания состоят из трех основных разделов по следующим темам:

  • Система высшего образования в России;

  • Система высшего образования в США;

  • Система высшего образования в Великобритании.

В каждый раздел входит текст, предназначенный для изучающего чтения, ряд заданий и тренировочных упражнений для работы в аудитории. Под рубрикой «Supplementary Reading» предлагаются дополнительные тексты по теме раздела для самостоятельного чтения. Под рубрикой «Discussion Points» приводятся творческие задания, которые побуждают студентов прокомментировать прочитанные тексты, высказать свое отношение и обменяться мнением по полученной информации.

Методические указания также содержат ссылку на сайт формата Webquest, посвященный величайшим ученым и их открытиям в различных областях человеческого знания. Данный сайт можно использовать как информационно-аналитический сборник, включающий аутентичные материалы широкого спектра, что обеспечивает каждому студенту возможность личностного выбора тематики и индивидуального графика подготовки к занятиям по избранной теме.

При наличии хорошей компьютерной базы данный сайт можно использовать как ролевой проект для изучения вклада ученных в развитие науки и оценки их научных достижений, что способствует развитию аналитических, поисковых и исследовательских навыков студентов, а также навыков речевой деятельности на английском языке.

Text 1. HIGHER EDUCATION IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

1. Before you start

1.1 Answer the following questions:

1. What are the general purposes of higher education?

2. Do you know if any changes have been made in the system of higher education in Russia?

3. What are the most prestigious universities in Russia?

2. Pronunciation

2.1 Read and practise the pronunciation of the following words:

nomenclature

[ ]

intermediate

[ :]

pursue

[ s:]

commence

[k s]

matriculation

[m tr ]

oriented

[ :]

3. Reading

3.1 Read the text to know more about the higher education in Russia.

Higher education in the Russian Federation

There are four types of institutions of higher education in Russia at the present time:

  1. Universities: responsible for education and research in a variety of disciplines;

  2. Academies: responsible for education and research. They differ from universities only in that they restrict themselves to a single discipline;

  3. Institutes: multi-discipline oriented. They can be independent structural units, or part of a university or academy;

  4. Private institutions: present in increasing numbers. They offer degrees in non-engineering fields such as business, culture, sociology and religion, etc.

Currently, there is a new degree structure which follows a three-level pattern and uses U.S./British nomenclature. The Certificate of Secondary Complete General Education and the successful passing of university matriculation exams are required for admission to all levels.

Level I generally lasts 2 years of study, upon completion of which students are awarded a “certificate of incomplete higher education”. Students holding a Level I qualification may either continue their studies or, if they choose not to, leave the institution with the intermediate diploma.

Level II represents the completion of “basic academic education”. Students are awarded a Bachelor’s degree upon a completion of four-year programmes in the humanities, economics and natural sciences, as well as some practical professional training.

Level III represents an educational level, common to both the Master’s degree and the Specialist diploma.

Specialist: This is a professional training programme designed for the students who choose to pursue the practical applications of their specialization. It can be earned in one of two ways:

  1. upon completion of at least one year of study after the Bachelor’s degree;

  2. upon completion of five years of study after the certificate of secondary complete general education. The degree grants professional qualification in engineering, teaching, economics and etc.

Master’s: This is an academic degree designed for students who wish to pursue a career in academy and research. The length of study is at least two years.

The top level of higher education is a graduate work which entails a three-year programme of study and research leading to a Candidate degree, then original research which finally leads to a Doctoral degree.

With more than 880 higher education institutions, the Russian Federation higher education system offers a broad range of study and research programmes designed to meet possible academic need on the part of students and these include:

  • intermediate diploma courses;

  • full Bachelor’s degree programmes (BA or BSc);

  • full Master’s degree programmes (MA or MSc);

  • Master’s degree programmes for graduates already holding a Bachelor’s degree;

  • special full-time courses for visiting students who commenced and/or will complete their degree at a foreign higher education institution;

  • doctoral programmes (PhD and DSc);

  • continuing education and training programmes;

  • research study programmes;

  • retraining programmes;

  • Specialist’s diploma programmes.

(Adapted from the Internet sites)

3.2 What new facts about the Russian system of higher education have you learnt from this text?

4. Comprehension check

4.1 Answer the following questions:

1. What are the main types of higher educational establishments in Russia?

2. How many levels are there in the system of higher education in Russia? What are they responsible for?

3. What are the main requirements for the admission to the educational establishments of all levels?

4. In which case are students awarded a “certificate of incomplete higher education” or a Bachelor’s degree?

5. What does level III represent?

6. How can the Specialist diploma be earned?

7. What is the difference between Bachelor’s and Master’s degrees?

8. What are the highest degree titles in Russia?

9. What are the most common study and research programmes offered in the institutions of higher education in Russia?

4.2 Agree or disagree with the following statements:

1. The system of higher education in Russia is represented by two main types of institutions.

2. There are only few private educational establishments in Russia.

3. A new degree structure is represented by a three-level pattern.

4. Entry requirements for admission to educational institutions of all levels in Russia are different.

5. Specialist diploma is conferred after 4 years of university training.

6. The top level that can be reached in higher education is a Doctoral degree.

5. Vocabulary

5.1 Give English equivalents of the following words and word combinations:

учреждения высшего образования; ограничиваться отдельной дисциплиной; независимые (самостоятельные) структурные единицы; растущее число; трехуровневая модель; аттестат о полном общем среднем образовании; диплом о неполном высшем образовании; программа профессиональной подготовки; желать продолжить карьеру в … области; предусматривать трехгодичную программу обучения и исследовательской работы.

5.2 Сomplete the sentences:

1. There are … types of institutions of higher education in Russia at the present time.

2. A new degree structure follows a … pattern.

3. Upon completion of level I students are awarded …

4. Students are awarded … degree upon completion of four-year programme.

5. Level III represents an educational level common to both the Master’s degree and …

6. Specialist training programme is for the students who wish to pursue the … application of their specialization.

7. Master’s academic degree is designed for students who wish to pursue a carreer in …

8. The top level of higher education is …

Text 2. ROSTOV STATE UNIVERSITY

1. Before you start

1.1 Answer the following questions:

1. What are the best Russian universities?

2. What is the largest university in the South of Russia?

3. What do you know about the history of Rostov University?

4. Do you know if any of the university graduates have become the outstanding figures?

5. How many students study at Rostov State University?

2. Pronunciation

2.1 Read and practise the pronunciation of the following words:

imperial

[m prl]

philology

[f lld]

medicine

[ medsn]

mechanics

[m knks]

chemistry

[ kemstr]

psychology

[sa  kld]

geology

[d ld]

journalism

[d:nlzm]

law

[l:]

advanced

[d v:nst]

applied mathematics

[ pld  ]

staff

[st:f]

dormitory

[ d:mtr]

Warsaw

[ w:s:]

respective

[rs pektv]

sociology

[ss ld]

preliminary

[pr lmnr]

bachelor

[ bt()l]

3. Reading

3.1 Read the text to know more about Rostov State University.

Rostov State University

Rostov State University is the largest center of education, science and culture in the south of Russia.

The University of Warsaw, which was evacuated to Rostov during World War I laid the foundation for Rostov State University.

The official opening of the Imperial University of Warsaw took place in Rostov on November 27, 1915, and on December 1, the academic year began in four university faculties: history and philology, medicine, law, physics and mathematics. In 1931 three university faculties were reorganized into the Medical Institute, the Teacher-Training Institute and the Institute of Economics and Finance. The rest of the university received the name of Rostov State University and started the academic year based on faculties of Physics and Mathematics, Chemistry, Geology and Botany.

At present Rostov State University is a training, research and development unit, comprising 15 faculties: Physics, Mechanics and Mathematics, Chemistry, Faculty of High Technologies, Geology and Geography, Biology and Soil, History, Law, Economics, Psychology, Philosophy and Cultural Studies, Philology and Journalism, Sociology and Political Science, Faculty of Military Studies; the Department of Regional Studies and Open Faculty.

There are 7 research institutes that of Neurocybernetics, Biology, Physics, Mechanics and Applied Mathematics, Physical and Organic Chemistry, Geochemistry of Atmosphere and the Northern Caucasus Research Institute for Economic and Social Problems, the “Piezopribor” Scientific and Technology Design Office, a Computer Centre, a University Library, the University Press, an agricultural research centre including an experimental farm, the Botanic Gardens, Nikel training field centre (the republic of Adygeya), Limanchick recreation and sport camp on the Black Sea coast, and other training and auxiliary divisions.

Rostov State University takes pride in the highly qualified and experienced university team: the academic and research staff of 1225 university lecturers and 700 researchers includes 2 Full Members of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 1 Associate of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2 Associates of the Russian Academy of Education, over 70 Full Members and Associates of branch Academies and International Academies, 196 professors and 626 Candidates, 18 State Prize Winners, and 17 Honoured Scientists of the Russian Federation.

The university is currently offering courses of studies in 12 programmes and 34 majors which include those which meet the demands of present day Russian society: Social Work, Sociology, Romance-Germanic Philology, Anticrisis Management, Bioecology, Geoecology, World Economics, Regional Studies, etc. Specialized Scientific Boards are fully accredited to award Candidate and Doctoral degrees in 30 specializations.

The gradual and complicated shift to a market economy requires an updating of the university curricula, education and training services. This has resulted in the introduction of new education technologies (problem education, modular education, discipline-oriented cycles, etc.) and a transfer to a multi-level system of delivering education and training.

There is also a “University-School” association within the framework of the university structure, operating since 1990. It is designed for both educational and training purposes and embraces university faculties, inter-faculty departments (delivering training and educational services to all the faculties), 2 secondary schools and 3 lycees affiliated with Rostov State Classical Lycee.

A total of over 100 thousand university graduates have completed their course of studies at Rostov State University. Many of them have become outstanding figures in their respective fields.

Rostov State University is traditionally known for its scholars’ contribution to research in various sciences. Their achievements are especially evident in the field of analysis and synthesis of certain organic compounds, electronic and spatial composition of molecular structures, development of new highly effective ferroelectric materials and their production technologies, non-distracting methods of control, theoretical and applied problems of mechanical engineering, fundamental and applied problems of brain cybernetics, problems of artificial intellect, automatized medical and biological systems.

International activities in Rostov State University are aimed at developing partnership relations with international institutions of higher education. The university offers courses of undergraduate studies for international students and programs for international trainees. Programs are also available for advanced postgraduate studies (for Candidate and Doctoral degrees). Rostov State University is also active in developing international research collaboration and academic exchange programs for students, researchers and academic staff.

The university has established close contacts with nearly 50 international institutions of higher education, as well as organizations representing more than 20 countries of the world, including the USA, Germany, Great Britain, France, Canada, Italy, Turkey, Greece, Israel, China, Bulgaria, Poland and others.

The university has 6 buildings and 8 dormitories. There are currently about 10.000 students at Rostov State University.

The course of studies at the university is split into 4-6 academic years for full-time and part-time students.

The academic year is divided into 2 semesters. At the end of each semester students take preliminary tests, semester or final exams. The students have to submit their graduation thesis papers at the end of the course of studies. In addition to this some faculties require students to write term papers in the course of the academic year.

The established curriculum includes special subjects, social and natural sciences and foreign languages. During the academic year the students are given lectures on certain compulsory and optional courses in different subjects. The students attend classes scheduled in the time-table.

After graduating from the university, the graduates receive Bachelor’s degrees if they complete a four-year programme and Master’s Degrees if they successfully complete a six-year programme, those who take a five-year course receive Diplomas of higher education. Upon completion of the required three-year courses, based on research and the writing of a dissertation, Candidate degrees and Doctorate are conferred.

3.2 What new facts about Rostov State University have you learnt from the text?

4. Comprehension check

4.1 Answer the following questions:

  1. When was Rostov State University founded?

  2. How many faculties are there at the university?

  3. What do you know about research institutes?

  4. What specializations are the students trained in?

  5. How many buildings does the university have?

  6. How many students are there at the university?

  7. There are 95 departments at the university, aren’t there?

  8. How long does the course of studies at the university last?

  9. Is the academic year divided into 3 semesters as it is in the British universities?

  10. What degrees are conferred after graduating from the university?

4.2 Agree or disagree with the following statements:

  1. Warsaw University was evacuated to Rostov in 1917.

  2. At first there were only five faculties at Rostov State University.

  3. At present Rostov State University consists of 10 faculties.

  4. The teaching staff of the university has high scientific and academic potential.

  5. The university students are trained in 20 specializations.

  6. Rostov State University is known for its scholars’ contribution to research in various sciences.

  7. International activities in Rostov State Universities do not include post-graduate training of international students.

  8. A total of 50 thousand university graduates have completed their course of studies at RSU.

  9. Attendance of classes is compulsory and in accordance with the faculty time-table.

5. Vocabulary

5.1 Give equivalents of the following Russian words and word combinations:

быть основанным; эвакуировать; обеспечивать; исследовательский институт; преподавательский состав; научный потенциал; Академия наук; специализация; общежитие; выдающаяся личность; соответствующая область (науки); кафедра; курс обучения; учебный год; зачет; итоговый экзамен; получать степень бакалавра; степень магистра; диплом о высшем образовании; выпускник.

5.2 Match the parts of the sentences:

1. Rostov State University is the largest center of

a) in establishing Rostov Innovation and Technology centre.

2. Warsaw University was evacuated to Rostov in

b) outstanding figures in their respective fields.

3. The university students are trained

c) preliminary tests and semester exams.

4. The university also heads the program

d) Bachelor’s and Master’s Degrees.

5. Many of the university graduates have become

e) 1915 ( during World War I )

6. There are currently about 10000 students

f) scheduled in the time-table.

7. At the end of each semester the students take

g) education, science and culture in the south of Russia.

8. The students attend classes

h) at Rostov State University.

9. After graduating from the university the graduates receive

i) in 26 specializations.

5.3 Fill in the gaps with the words and word combinations from the text:

  1. The official opening of the Imperial University … … in Rostov in November 1915.

  2. At present Rostov State University is an … and … unit.

  3. There are currently 1225 … at the university.

  4. Rostov State University is known for its scholars … to research in various sciences.

  5. Their successes are especially … in various fields.

  6. The university has 6 … and 8 … .

  7. 46 university departments … … by a professor or a Doctor of Science.

  8. The students have to … their graduation paper at the end of the course of studies.

5.4 Complete the sentences:

  1. Rostov State University is the largest center of …

  2. The Imperial University of Warsaw was evacuated to …

  3. In 1915 the academic year began in …

  4. The teaching staff of Rostov State University has …

  5. The university students are trained in …

  6. Many of the university graduates have become …

  7. The course of studies at the university is split into …

  8. The academic year is divided into …

  9. After graduating from the university, the graduates …

  10. The university curriculum includes …

  1. Supplementary reading

    1. Read the text to know more about the history of Rostov State University.

From Warsaw to Rostov

The foundation and the growth of the university (1915-1930)

The Imperial University of Warsaw was founded in October, 1869 on the basis of Warsaw Principal School. There were originally four faculties: the Faculty of History and Philology, the Faculty of Medicine, the Faculty of Law and the Faculty of Physics and Mathematics with departments of natural sciences and mathematics.

In the 19th century Warsaw University was staffed with outstanding scientists in Mechanics and Mathematics of the time.

During World War I, the German Army approached Warsaw in 1915. Thus the university was urgently evacuated to Moscow and the problem of its further location was discussed. The best conditions for the university location were offered by the city of Rostov-on-Don, which had no higher education establishments at that time. The only institute in the whole Don Cossacks region was the Polytechnic Institute at Novocherkassk founded in 1907.

The authorities and community of Rostov were enthusiastic about the university relocation. Works had begun with the urgent reconstruction of about 10 buildings given to the university. The university was solemnly opened on November 27. Classes in all four faculties began on December 1, 1915.

The relocation of the university played a great cultural and educational role in the life of Rostov region. The professors and tutors took an active part in different programs specifically concerned with improving the role of education. They were lecturing in Rostov, Novocherkassk, Taganrog. As a result of this activity, the Woman’s High Courses were reopened, the National University was founded. Science Societies of the university were renewed and a lot of citizens of Rostov were involved into their work. The “University News” newspaper had been regularly published since 1916.

At the beginning of 1917, it became clear that it was impossible for the university to return to Warsaw. By that time almost all the university equipment was created anew in Rostov.

In May, 1917 the Provisional Government of Russia reorganized the Imperial University of Warsaw into the Don University, which in 1929 was renamed the North Caucasus University. The major strategy of the university since its foundation has always been an integration of research university into science and education. In 1926 the first three research institutions were set up under the auspices of the university: the Institute of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, the Institute of Local Economy and the Institute of Experimental and Clinical Medicine.

In 1931 three university faculties were reorganized into the Medical Institute, the Teacher-Training Institute and the Institute of Economics and Finance. The rest of the University received the name Rostov State University and started the academic year at the constituent faculties of physics and mathematics, chemistry, geology and botany. By the end of the 1930s the faculty of geology and botany was subdivided into the faculty of geology and soil, and the faculty of geography. The university structure at the same time included the Botanical Gardens and the Research Institute of Biology.

The continuing development of Rostov State University was interrupted by World War II, as 66 university staff members and over 600 students joined the front lines during the first months of the war. In the summer of 1942 the University was transferred to Kirgizia (the city of Osh) but moved back to a devastated Rostov in 1944. it only took the University team 5 years to reach the pre-war level of education, training and research (and even to surpass it in some aspects).

The late 1960s and early 1970s witnessed the formation of the present-day university structure. In 1965 a new faculty of economics and philosophy was founded, while the faculty of history and philology split into the faculty of history and that of philology. In 1970 the Research Institute of Physics was founded, followed by the Research Institute of Physical and Organic Chemistry and the Research Institute of Mechanics and Applied Mathematics in 1971. The Research Institute of Neurocybernetics was started in 1972.

The last decade of the 20th century was a difficult period for the whole of the country politically, socially and economically. Rostov State University survived and went on gaining strength as a classical university.

    1. Read the text to know more about the outstanding graduates of Rostov State University.

A total of over 110 thousand university graduates have completed their course of studies at Rostov State University. Many of them have become outstanding figures in their respective fields. Alumni include academician V.I. Minkin, the current director of the Research Institute of Physical and Organic Chemistry; Academician G.G. Mateshov, director of the Research Institute of Marine Biology (Murmansk, Russia); Academician V.A. Babeshko, rector of Kuban State University (Krasnodar, Russia); writer A.S. Solzhenitsin; Chairman of the Russian Constitutional Court M.V. Baglay; member of the Russian Constitutional Court Prof. N.S. Bondar; the former Russian High Ambassador to Israel, A.E. Bovin; former chairman of the Central Editorial Committee of the Russian Federation and current Russian Ambassador to Yugoslavia, N.G. Ryabov; professor E.G. Fesenko, USSR State Prize Winner; politician S.M. Shakhray, an aid in the Russian President’s Administration; V.A. Starkov, editor-in-chief of the national weekly “Arguments and Facts”; D. Dibrov, popular NTV anchorman; writer Daniel Koretsky; first Deputy of the Home Affairs Minister, V.V. Kolesnikov; rector of Rostov State Teacher-Training University, A.A. Grekov, and others.

The division for postgraduate studies and training is very effective in training highly qualified staff. It offers advanced courses of postgraduate studies (leading to Candidates degrees and Doctoral degrees), delivers programs for trainees, for retraining and advanced studies, as well as for those writing a thesis to qualify for a Doctoral degree.

At Rostov State University there are 22 fully accredited Boards awarding advanced degrees (10 for Doctoral degrees, 12 for Candidates).

The Institute of Retraining and Advanced Studies in Humanities and Social Sciences for Academics was founded under Rostov State University by the decision of the Russian Government, and is the largest center of training, research and methods in South Russia, with 19 Doctors of Science and 10 Candidates working on the staff. The institute offers programs of professional studies in the following disciplines: history, philosophy, culture studies, economic theory, political science, sociology, psychology, social work and law. Integrated regional research projects are carried out at the Institute. It also offers programmes of postgraduate studies. The Department of Regional Studies trains analysts, consultants and aides specializing in the problems of the Caucasus area.

The academic research library is an important part of the University structure. It is the largest library in the south of Russia uniting the libraries of other universities in the North Caucasus. It is a member of the Russian Library Association and a member of the Regional Consortium of Libraries. The library has seven lending departments and six reading halls attended by over 800 thousand readers annually. The library facilities and its nearly 3-mln inventory provide an excellent opportunity for research and studies. It has a unique collection of rare volumes including west European editions dating from the 16th – 17th centuries, a collection of books of traditional Cyrillic type of the 17th century and Russian books of the 19th century.

    1. Read the text to know more about research divisions of the university.

Both the academic and research divisions of the university are involved in fundamental and applied research in arts, sciences and social sciences, focusing on finding solutions to long-term problems.

The A.B. Kogan Research Institute of Neurocybernetics was founded in 1971. The institute comprises 4 departments and 10 laboratories, with 61 researchers on the staff including 7 Doctors and 34 Candidates of Science. The main research areas are: neurobiology (the study of the physiological, morphological and behavioral mechanisms of neuron systems operation); neuroinformatics (the development of principles and devices for managing and processing information in natural neuron systems); psychophysiology (the study of the nerve mechanisms of human and animal brain formation); biomedical engineering (the development of software-hardware complexes for medical-biological and psychophysiological purposes). The area of research ranges from molecular and cell level processes through the organization of neuron ensembles and brain subsystems to the integrated functions of the nervous system, as well as applications in medicine and equipment. The Research Institute of Neurocybernetics has set up a department of biophysics and biocybernetics in cooperation with the Faculty of Physics. Both undergraduates and graduates have equal opportunity to major at the department. The institute offers postgraduate programs in 3 majors.

The Research Institute of Physical and Organic Chemistry was founded in 1971. There are 198 researchers on the staff including 20 Doctors of Science and 104 Candidates. The main areas of research are: synthesis and study of photochemically active species applied to the system of information recording and energy conversion; the study of synthesis, structure and reactivity of organic natural coordination compounds used to simulate biologically important processes and objects; purpose-specified synthesis, and integrated study of synthetic and modified natural physiologically active substances focused on the development of new specific drugs; search and study of effective organic photo-chromium and luminescent compounds.

The Research Institute of Mechanics and Applied Mathematics was founded in 1971. There are 205 employees on the staff, including 12 Doctors of Science and 57 Candidates. The major area of research are: mechanics of deformable solids, strength and fracture; mathematical processes of continuum mechanics; mathematical modelling of environmental-economic systems; mathematical models of thin-walled structures; development of new construction materials utilizing industrial wastes and resource-saving technologies for erecting bearing structures; analysis, production processes and applications of piezoactive composite materials in ultrasonic devices; and the development of power-efficient gearings. Since 1971 the researchers of the institute have been awarded 2 National State Prizes, they have published 64 monographs and taken out 65 patents, including 18 in foreign countries. International projects within the framework of the INTAS, GLOBE, NATO, and CRDF programs have been completed and new projects are currently under way. Academician Iosif I. Vorovich, Full Member of the Russian Academy of Science, has been the director of the institute since its foundation.

The Research Institute of Physics was founded in 1970 through the reorganization of the research institute of physics and mathematics, which had functioned at Rostov State University since 1936. The institute staff of 314 includes 16 Doctors of Science and 83 Candidates. The main research areas are: X-ray and electronic spectroscopy; atomic and electronic structure of solids; physics of ferroelectric and ferropiezoelectric materials; non-linear physics; theoretical and experimental research into phase transitions in crystals; physical astronomy; cosmology; physics of circumferential space; chronobiology. The institute designs and manufactures piezoelectric transducers and gauges, equipment for ultrasonic medical diagnostics, active and passive UHF devices, metallic vapour lasers, and complex analytic equipment and instruments (Messbauer spectrometers, X-ray spectroscopic equipment, etc.).

The Research Institute of Biology was founded in 1936. There are 85 researchers on the staff, including 2 Doctors and 43 Candidates of Science. The major research areas are: study of molecular and genetic mechanisms controlling metabolism under normal, extreme and pathological conditions; development of genetic, biochemical and biophysical methods of estimating organism conditions; forecasting individuals response to the effect of extreme environment factors; techniques of somatic hybridization aimed at obtaining plastid-chlorophyll and stress-resistant mutations of higher plants and their improvement by selection; techniques of increased production and rational management of natural resources for a more efficient use in the national economy; the monitoring of soils fertility; and the monitoring of the Don river water shed, the Tzimlyansk Reservoir, and the Sea of Azov.

The Institute of Biosphere Geochemistry was founded in 1991. The staff of 38 includes 1 Doctor and 1 Candidate of Science. The main areas of research are: environmental protection and rational nature management; migration and concentration of chemical elements in natural and technogenic landscapes; forecasting and mineral resources prospecting by means of geochemical techniques; and the accumulation problems in various landscapes under various geochemical conditions. During the 9 years of its operation the researchers of the Institute have made two scientific discoveries. These were colloborated by the International Association of the Authors of Scientific Discoveries. 8 monographs and manuals have been published, and research is being done within the framework of both Russian and foreign grants (CRDF inclusive).



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